Using material from Item A and elsewhere, asses the view that factors and processes within the school are the main cause of differences in the educational achievement of different social groups. Class differences can play a significant role in educational achievement be it under or over-achievement. Underachievement is associated with working-class children, as when they are young they are identified as W/C and then labelled. This view was put forward by Becker (1971) who identified in his study that teachers did not view W/C children as ideal pupils. Their work, appearance and conduct were all factors the teachers based their label around.
Summary The article is about positive reinforcement and how it used in almost every aspect of life from the classroom to the work place. Often teachers and educators think that positive reinforcement is just bribery to get kids to do what they already know they are supposed to do. While other teachers and educators say that negative reinforcement is used too much in the classrooms and that positive reinforcement is needed in the classroom as well. Positive reinforcement is use in the adult world so why not bring it to the classroom as well. When children are young teachers use sticker that say “great job,” “excellent,” or “way to go”, the teachers also use gold star stickers for good behavior.
Teacher can better justify student grades by using a rubric that clearly shows where the student rates according to the rubric. Spirals are an excellent tool for attaching new information to what the student knows or what has been already taught. Teachers using this method of teaching give students smaller amounts of information and then after a while they come back and reteach it. This can happen more than a few times,
The forming of subcultures often emerge as a response to the way pupils have been labelled and as a reaction to streaming. Hargreaves, Hester and Mellor (1975) conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews in two Northern England schools. Results revealed that teachers label students by speculation when teachers makes assumptions based on a student’s appearance and enthusiasm in class, elaboration when teachers test their hypothesis which will either be confirmed or greatly contradicted and stabilisation when their hypothesis becomes fixed depending on the outcome. Students then start to believe that they belong in the group they have been labelled to. This is called the self-fulfilling prophecy.
c) One way in which ethnic minority children may respond to negative labelling is by a self fulfilling prophecy; if the teacher perceives them to be badly behaved, and then they may start acing that way. Another way they could react is to do the opposite of a self fulfilling prophecy, and go out of their way to try and achieve and behave well to prove their teacher wrong and to prove themselves. Finally, children of ethnic minorities could also become disheartened and depressed by such negative feedback form their teachers, and behave accordingly which will affect both their achievement and attitudes towards school, peers and other adults. d) One way in which schools can be seen as institutionally racist is that the schools curriculum can be seen as ethnocentric in aspects such as school assemblies, school holiday times and aspects of the curriculum such as languages, history and world religions. Another way is that within the classroom, students can be labelled negatively by teachers based solely on appearances and in some cases their ethnic group.
We can refer reliability as being a consistency, stabile and dependable of a results or measurement we got or obtain from an assessment task. In other words as McMillan (2004) stated that it is a result that shows similar performance at different times. When we take into account factors that contribute to the students work not been reliable, we can assume it may be factors such as the health of the child, the general ability of the children and motivation of the child. When marking the recount of the children's work there were many reliable observation that i made that could have affected how reliable my marking was. For instance being aware of my personal bias when it comes to going over a child recount.
The importance of cultural explanation in explaining differences in social class and achievement. Many Sociologists have argued over the course that cultural factors are the explanation of why students do or do not achieve high in education. One side argues that cultural deprivation is the cause of this whilst the other material deprivation argues a different case and some other argue that it is neither both but factors inside school itself. Cultural deprivation means factors such as values, attitudes, languages. So, If a child is in a social group deprived of these factors he could underachieve.
This is easier to be achieved when being encouraged to explore and helped with when having to make decisions by their carer. However if the carer shows a discouraging attitude to the child, they begin to sometimes feel ashamed of themselves. The child may then begin to assume how others may feel about them or things they may do. This is where guilt begins to grow. This stage is where a child must learn and accept what is and is not allowed and that some of the things that are not allowed could result in a punishment.
Consider this directional hypothesis: Students with disabilities will show greater gains in test scores when enrolled in classrooms where peer tutoring is used consistently and correctly. (Adjust null accordingly) Then, in your methods section you can indicate that you used previous test scores (before peer tutoring) to compare with current (after peer tutoring) test scores. Null Hypothesis: When teachers compare students current and previous test scores, students with disabilities will show no change in their academic gains in classrooms where peer tutoring is used consistently and correctly. Definitions: peer tutoring, peer learning, cooperative learning, CWPT(class wide peer tutoring). Review of the Literature Student achievement has come to the forefront of the public eye in recent years.
Do teacher’s opinions affect the educational achievements of those from a different ethnic background? Supporting learner needs is a key area of topic that I will be focusing on. Throughout this essay I will be referring to ‘labelling’ within the classroom, debating whether or not is it due to prejudgement of teachers or the mind set of ethnic minorities affecting their performance at school. The phrase labelling is referred to attaching individuals or a group with a word or short phrase. Afro black Caribbean boys being labelled as ‘poor achievers’ is a prime example of labelling within the classroom.