To what extent was the Russian economy transformed in the period of 1881-1914 Russia’s economy in 1881 was in a rather detrimental state, they seemed to be so many years behind the rest of the European superpowers, especially in terms of industrial progress. A famous historian Murphy referred to Russia as the “most economically underdeveloped superpower.” Many reforms were attempted to improve the economic state of Russia, but just how successful were they? In this essay I am going to be writing from the point of view that Russia economy was changed, however there are some flaws in this statement, which I will discuss further on… Firstly, the first indication of major change for me was the reforms applying to the rural areas of Russia. At the start of this period peasants were in heavy debt and struggling to survive, agriculturally, the country wasn’t producing enough crops to supply the country with food, let alone sell for a profit. (Only 50% of Russian farms produced surplus crops.)
c. severe cutbacks in the size of the federal government. d. a taxpayer revolt. e. a growing reliance on overseas trade to sustain the American economy. 3. The poor economic performance of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to a. American reliance on Middle Eastern oil.
Reasons that back up source 4 are that Labour promised to sort out Britain’s economic problems. By the early 1960s there was a balance of payments deficit, high inflation and growing unemployment. The Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer, Selwyn Lloyd, attempted to deal with the problems by setting up a National Economic Development Council and National Incomes Commission but these failed. In 1962, therefore, Lloyd was replaced by Reginald Maudling. He was just as unsuccessful and by the time of the October election of 1964 Britain was in debt to the tune of £750 million.
Additionally the production of steel stagnated. Although economy grew by 14%, they failed to meet official targets and as a result the local party officials were sacked or demoted. Overall, the Russian economy improved massively changing from a backward peasant economy at the end of the 1920’s to a highly industrial economy by 1941. In terms of consumer goods there was no a significant improvement. The Five Year Plan tried to eradicate free trade which meant that people could not afford what they wanted.
At the end of 1923, Stresemann became Chancellor and also served as the foreign minister until his death in 1929. During these years, Germany recovered in economy, national pride and confidence. These years can be perceived as the “Golden Age” of the republic. However, this redemption in Germany may not have been as full as it seems so it is necessary to balance the successes and failures. Initially, during this period Stresemann made some tough decisions but they resulted in a stabilised economy.
From 1974-1978 all the major firms saw increased sales and net income but as time progresses and the market stops growing the firms that have best positioned themselves will begin to dominate the competition. An indicator firm success can be found in looking at firm Return On Sales (ROS). ROS = Net Income/Sales Revenue, it is a measure of firm efficiency and firms with higher ROS are demonstrating an ability to control costs and/or charge a higher price for their product(s) as opposed to competition. Lower ROS firms have lower income in relation to revenue and increasing net income is harder. In 1978 Emerson (Beaird-Poulan) and Electrolux (Husqvarna) are the industry leaders in ROS at 7.9%.
But which factor played the greatest role in the breakdown of Sino-Soviet relations in the late 1960’s? As previously mentioned, the relations between the USSR and China broke down dramatically in the late 1960’s that it eventually lead to small armed skirmishes. A famous example of this occurring was in 1969, and the fight over the Ussuri river. This deterioration of relations was largely fueled by China’s desire to assert itself as a world power, and Russia’s determination to prevent this. Conflicting national interest caused relations between the two powers to deteriorate further, as shown in Russia’s decision to double its army along the Russian and Chinese border following the border disputes.
Despite high inflation rates, at the end of his term Carter could credit an 8 million job increase and a significant decrease in the budget deficit. He had inherited a shaky economy, a national debt, and also what he called a “crisis of confidence” throughout the American people. In 1976 the country was coming out of dark times riddled with war, scandal and tragedy. With Vietnam, Watergate, and the JFK assassination fresh in peoples mind, the country’s faith in the government and in the nation itself was declining. Carter’s goal was to conduct a “competent and compassionate”
Introduction: Cause of Protest Tiananmen Square protests in 1989, also called the June four Incident in China in order to clarify this from another Tiananmen protest. Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping, late leader of Communist Party of China, had led a series of economic and political innovations which had led to the gradual success of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong (Former Leader). But then some of the students and intellectuals charged that innovations had not gone far enough as the influence of the economic reforms had only affected farmers and factory workers, the incomes of intellectuals lagged far behind those who had benefited from reform policies. Quick Facts There were a series of demonstrations led by labour activists, students and intellectuals in China on April 15 and June 4, 1989. While the protest lacked an identical cause or leadership, most of the protesters were generally against the economic policies and authoritarian of the ruling of the Chinese Communist Party and expressing calls for democratic reforms in the structure of government.
To what extent was Mikhail Gorbachev responsible for the fall of the USSR? “We can’t go on living like this” this was what Mikhail Gorbachev was reported to have said in the eve of his succession. What Gorbachev was talking about was the decline in living standards in the Soviet Union due to its crumbling economic, political and social policies, and was hinting at the change in policies and diplomatic relations which he would implement once he came into power, policies that would eventually lead to the end of the cold war and the collapse of the USSR. It was historian Raymond L. Garthoff who said “…Over four decades it performed the historic function of holding Soviet power in check until the internal seeds of destruction within the Soviet Union and its empire could mature. At this point, however it was Gorbachev who bought the Cold War to an end…”.