Although urban regeneration is a worldwide issue, it has been especially present in the urban areas throughout the UK in the last 30 years, with the government introducing many different schemes to try and combat the causes and consequences of urban decline. This essay will discuss them and their varying degrees of success. Urban Development Corporations were set up in the 1980s and 1990s, and took the stance of improving the physical, economic and social state of inner city areas through building new infrastructure on derelict and vacant land. These UDCs were given planning approval powers that encouraged them to purchase land, build the new infrastructure and improve the marketing to attract outside investment to the area. The motive behind this was that private investment would be four to five times greater than the initial public spending.
| 7 | Blacks Move Too | Many African American individuals moved to the Northern Cities to flee from racial violence (lynching), economic hardship, and political oppression (legal segregation). Most of them moved to cities such as NYC, Philly, Detroit and Chicago. | 8 | Living Options | Either the immigrants could buy houses on the outskirts of major cities, rent apartments, or live in tenements. | 9 | Problems With the Tenements | Tenements were overcrowded (housed up to three families), contained no windows, running water, and were very unsanitary.
When visualising the role of public buildings it is clear they were designed to satisfy the needs of the population. Public buildings can be divided into three sections, buildings for entertainment: theatres, amphitheatres and circuses, buildings of religious purpose: temples and shrines, and thirdly political, social economical buildings such as the forum, basilica and council chambers. This essay aims to set out the architectural landscape showing how individuals may have lived their lives and spent their time highlighting the everyday accessibility of public buildings, but also looks at political implications of public buildings as a means of expanding the Roman Empire. The focus of this essay will be on public buildings of entertainment and that of great political and social importance. Urbanisation and its appearance in North Western Europe can be seen as a marker of Romanisation.
Document 2 focuses on the fact that Manchester in too crowded due to the narrow streets and large buildings. While document 5 mainly expresses unhappiness among the workers and inhabitants of Manchester, but also the fact that Manchester is very wealthy due to the growing industrialization. Document 7 stresses just how horribly the workers are living without shelter and
Evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline (40 marks) Urban decline is caused by many factors including the development of the suburbs, leading to migration of the upper and middle class workers but is mostly effected by de-industrialisation, resulting in big corporations leaving the region, taking skilled workers and trade with them and causing large scale unemployment. This can cause an even bigger spiral of decline as low income levels mean people can’t afford high quality housing, education or health and then investment into the area starts to leave which leaves the infrastructure to crumble and social standards start to slip. Therefore, to help encourage development in these areas, the government and the people often create schemes to help regenerate the area. One cause of urban decline is the emigration of workers out of an area usually into the suburbs in a search for a nicer environment and better quality of living. This can often lead to the abandonment of buildings which soon become overgrown and derelict.
This assignment will explore differences and similarities of two ideas of how social order can be created and maintained, using the findings of the Buchanan Report, ‘Traffic in Towns’ (Buchanan, 1963) and the ideas of Hans Monderman (late 20th century). In these instances the focus is the relationship between traffic and pedestrians, and how the governance of these variables act as agents in the creation of social order. Buchanan and Monderman explored how the relationship between traffic and pedestrians makes and remakes social order. Traffic congestion in Britain’s towns and cities increased in correlation with the exponential rise in car ownership following the conclusion of the Second World War (Silva, 2009, p.325). Buchanan was commissioned in 1961 by the UK Government to deliver the report ‘Traffic in Towns’.
However, this process doesn’t come alone. Urban decline very often leads to urban deprivation. This is when the area, which has previously suffered urban decline, is deprived of services and conveniences. The individuals living in the area will have poor access to resources. There are many different types and levels of deprivation; including, poor and overcrowded housing, inadequate diet, low income and lack of opportunity for employment.
Orlando Rosado Sociology 311 April 19, 2012 Midterm What is meant by the concept of multinucleated metropolitan regions and how is it different from urban development of the past? Explain the sociospatial approach to urban Sociology and the links with global capitalism, the real estate industry, government policies, pull factors, the social organization of settlement space and the importance of culture. Compare and contrast the views of Tonnies, Durkheim, Simmel, Wirth, Park, and Burgess on urban Sociology. Which theory do you think best explains views cities Sociologically and why? A multinucleated metropolitan region refers to the developing space patterns typical by sizable local areas and existence of several dedicated gathering places beyond the central business district.
___________________________________________________ The High-Modernist City: An experiment and a critique This essay is a criticism of urban planning and creation of a High-Modernist city. In the first section we take a look into the utopian project of the creation of a city according to Le Corbusier. The utopian project has some of the following features: There is a visual order and aesthetic order, on the principles of architecture. It doesn’t take into account the historicity of a place and everything is built afresh. The whole creation of a modern city is more of an expression of a machine age consciousness.
Social Disorganization Question and Answer L.J. CJA/384 Criminal Organizations August 7, 2012 Social Disorganization Social disorganization is defined as an inability of community members to achieve shared values or to solve jointly experienced problems. According to Shaw and McKay (1942), social disorganization references the conditions in the urban areas that were the only places the newly arriving poor could afford to live, in particular, a high rate of turnover in the population and mixes of people from different cultural backgrounds. Social disorganization theory specifies that several variables including residential instability, ethnic diversity, family disruption, economic status, population size or density, and proximity to urban areas all play a role in the theory. This paper will serve to make an attempt to correlate the similarities of the social disorganization theory and organized crime, and evaluate the similarities of the political machine and organized crime as they apply to social disorganization.