1. Who Are the New Generations? Economic development, political transformation, and cultural change often go together in a coherent pattern. Sun listed two driving forces behind the changing cultural landscape in China: “One is a domestic force, which stems from the market economic reforms. The other is an external force, which comes from economic globalization and Western cultural penetration.” Market-based economic activities have unleashed the individuals’ aspirations; everyone now has a chance to become rich. In the documentary, the parents often tell their children that if they study hard, they can leave the countryside and have a better life.
Despite certain of potential drawbacks, providing vocational training to rural migrant workers and new members of the workforce in urban and rural areas is the most realistic and beneficial option to balance equity and efficiency in China’s development. These solutions will be evaluated using the criteria of cost, practicality and effectiveness. Reforming the income distribution system can possibly be the most immediate way to change China’s current inequity status quo. This can be achieved by using tax, supervision and subsidy to properly improve the income level of the low-income families, enhance the ratio of the middle-income group and adjust the excessively high income of some monopoly industries (Riskin, Zhao and Shi, 2001). As Feng et.
In 1979, Xiaoping became the leader in China and reconstructed the government. His emphases were on technology growth, military, agriculture, and science. These changes could be seen in the privatization of personal land, more opportunities to produce and sell their products and increased control of investment opportunities. The Chinese people began moving to the cities, living longer and healthier lives and earning more per year. China was a nation that functioned on tradition, culture and respect of heritage before globalization.
MAIN POINTS: * Size and rapid growth of China, represent a challenge to establish global order * This clashes with existing assertiveness * The dynamics and future impacts of these power shifts are far from clear understanding and aren’t determined * The thirty years since China launched its policies of reform and opening could be described as the period during which the country has gradually become integrated into the world economy. * China has experienced the most rapid growth of any emerging economy, such that its demands on external resources and markets have reached considerable proportions * As a country that have actively taken part in and reaped the benefits of economic globalization, China has gained new awareness from the world’s existing political and economic structure and has experienced the process of gradually altered itself to this framework. * There was the unsuccessful pro-democracy movement that was suppressed by force in 1989. * Destabilising influences of other revolutions indicates the nation remaining wary of any significant change should it happen. * The ‘bounce back’ in Asian economies saw impressive growth opportunities in China during the 2008 Financial crisis *
In 1978 Deng Xiaoping became leader and began an ambitious programme of economic reform aimed at raising rates of foreign investment and growth. There have been foreign investments in China over the recent years, for example, Deng encouraged foreign trade and investment through joint ventures. In the south, zones were created giving investors tax concessions in exchange for revenue and technical knowledge. This was to encourage people to spend more money at businesses. Deng also ended collective farming.
The various political, social and economic reforms introduced by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) under Mao’s leadership, factionalism within the CCP itself and the changed ideologies of Deng Xiaoping were external factors crucial for the changes which occurred in China during this era. However, it is apparent that each one of these factors were either the result of or the stimulant of changing ideologies within ‘the people’ and/or the governing body. Numerous political, social and economic reforms introduced and strictly enforced by the CCP both positively and negatively affected the nation of China and its people, changing their ideologies which in turn caused further reform and change. The Great Leap Forward, launched in 1958 aimed to rapidly transform the nation from an agrarian society to a modern communist country through industrialization and collectivization. However, the policy failed and so support for the CCP’s Marxist policies were greatly reduced and thus, ideologies of both the CCP and ‘the people’ were changed.
Economic growth is the increase in value of goods and services produced by an economy, where high income and living standards leads to an increase in aggregate demand. Economic development is the change in structure of an economy in order to promote growth. The Chinese economy has implemented many strategies and reforms to achieve their high economic development and constant fast growth. 1. 1949-1978 (Great Leap Forward/Big Push) The Great Leap Forward was Mao Ze Dong’s attempt to modernize the Chinese economy by developing the agriculture and industry.
To better understand the relationship between these two countries, which continuous to puzzle, amaze, and confuse observers it is crucial that one first understand the basis for Chinese influence. China has not only become a very influential country not only in East Asia but in the world. A comprehensive understanding of the reasons behind its success will help analysts understand the roots and reasons behind its relations with North Korea and make it easy to predict the possibilities of their future association. The paper analyzes the development of the political relationship between the two countries from a historical comparative analysis, transitologist and political realist perspectives. The paper concludes that North Korea is becoming increasing dependent on china while china attempts to distance itself and endeavors to build closer relationships with South Korea.
These sources of inequality are inherent in China’s hukou system which restricts rural migrants from privileges enjoyed by urban residents in terms of social security such as retirement benefits, schooling, and housing (Joseph, 2014, p. 260-261). The addition to income from a university education compared to that of primary schooling has increased dramatically from 9% in 1988 to 39% in 1995 to 88% in 2002 (Gustafsson, Li and Sicular, 2008, p. 25). This means that levels of educational attainment highly influenced the income earning prospects and is a significant factor of income inequality in China. Indeed, gap in education contributes as much as 11% to China’s Gini coefficient (Gan 2013, p. 18). The exclusivity of access to education inherent in the hukou system therefore significantly contributes to the rising levels of inequality in
In the mid1980s the labor market was virtually reconstituted, and though regulation of migration still exists, the actual pattern of population movement has increasingly begun to resemble that of other developing countries. This paper focuses on the following two topics: the structure of China’s urbanization, and changes over time in the level of urbanization. The former refers to the changes that take place in cities of various size. I. DEFINITION OF THE URBAN AREA As in most other countries, the deﬁnition of urban areas in China is fairly complex.