Further support comes from Kohler et al (2002) who gave particpants 50 words and measured the galvine skin resistance (GSR) for the levels of stress. He found that words with a high level of GSR were the words that were most anxious and worst remembered. However there may be some ethical issues as participants may have thought that there may be harm in the GSR but the fact that there was no complaints suggests that is was ethical. The tests carried out were objective which is a much more reliable and valid way of measuring that subjective techniques like self-report measures which may have demand characteristics. On the
He showed students videos of violent crimes and interviewed them 48 hours later either using a standard police interview or the cognitive interview. The found that people were significantly more likely to remember details correctly when interviewed using the cognitive interview, showing that cognitive interview is effective in improving recall. However this study was a laboratory experiment which means it lacks ecological validity as people may have not taken it as seriously as they would in reality so the results can’t be generalised. Also, there are ethical issues in this study as it showed people violence so they weren’t protected from possible psychological harm. More research into the effectiveness of cognitive interview has supported this study showing that cognitive interview is superior to standard interview.
Asch measured the number of times each participant conformed to the majority view. On average, about one third of the participants who were placed in this situation went along and conformed to the clearly incorrect majority on the test. Over the 12 critical trials about 75% of participants conformed at least once and 25% of participant never conformed. In the control group, with no pressure to conform to confederates, less than 1% of participants gave the wrong answer. This proved that people wanted to follow others even when the answer was obvious to be part of a social norm.
The minority subjects placed under group pressure displayed an increase in mistakes, in comparison to a near zero percent mistakes when tested individually. The test subjects continued under whichever ordeal they chose, whether it was compliance or independence. Asch was able to obtain general reasons as to why the test subjects chose their actions. Those exhibiting independence were found to have confidence in their own judgment, the capability of recovering from doubt, and an obligation to staying true to oneself. Those
Running Head: ASSESSMENTS RESPONSE INFORMATION 1 Assessments Response Information Melvyn M. McCall III Human Relations in Management (Instructor) Patricia Duke Everest University ASSESSMENTS RESPONSE INFORMATION 2 Assessments Response Information During the “What Type of Thinker Are You” assessment I learned that I am more of a right-brain user highly analytical. The sixteen questions are not sufficient to determine whether a person is left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant. Even though the assessment isn’t sufficient enough to determine your brain dominance, they definitely provided me with some insight regarding my particular preference which in this case is right-brain dominate. In most cases though the scores indicate that people are more left-brain users. This was a very interesting assessment and it makes you think a little which is always a good thing in my opinion.
Of these subjects, 75% of them changed their answers to the majority vote at least once. When under the influence of peer pressure, the subjects accepted the majority and conformed 36.8% of the time. 25% of the individuals who partook in the experiment did not conform at all. Many variables within the experiment made the conformity rate fluctuate. These variables among others were unanimity, and when faced with an opposition of only 2, minority subjects “accepted the wrong answer 13.6 per cent of the time.
Whether the experiment went horribly wrong or horribly right is entirely a matter of opinion, although the “horrible” seems pretty clear cut. The experiment showed how good, perfectly normal people were capable of assuming roles quite contrary to their nature. The guards and prisoners were self-selecting sample groups, offered $15 dollars a day in exchange for their voluntary involvement in the experiment. Their backgrounds were checked to make sure they had no records of mental illness, violence or criminal activity. These bright, mentally and physically healthy young men were selected at random into 2 groups of nine, one of which were designated as guards, the other as prisoners.
Well, of course I was raging with fury at my first reaction. I reflected upon all my conversations that I had, and just imagined the great laugh that the NSA had over my calls. But after all, there must be some reason behind their actions. Despite that I’m mad about those guys overhearing my conversations, I guess we should all be happy that our government attempts on providing a secure place for all of us, in our great country. Perceiving the situation from the NSA’s point of view made me think outside the box for some time, though I’m still very mad… But being at this psychological state of mind will not lead anyone to a better thinking process.
This affected the results of the experiment because it shows that we go along with group or an authority figure when we are being pressured instead of standing up for what we as individuals think is right from our individual point of view. An example that would support my evaluation based upon group pressure and conformity would be when US soldiers took Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq in 2003. These soldiers took these prisoners and abused and humiliated them. These soldiers abused and humiliated these prisoners because they we told by a higher command to do so. These soldiers feared if they didn’t do what they were told they would face consequences.
23% of the men who took this survey showed signs of PTSD. 77% of men did NOT show signs of PTSD. Conclusion and Discussion To conclude my experiment, procedure and discussion, my thesis was proven to be accurate, and will confirm the survey member’s confidentiality. This project convinced me that the majority of women could have PTSD or may develop it in the