Ecological Systems Theory Essay This essay will identify the ecological systems theory, by one of few living theorists Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917 – Current) who the student believes that the theorist expresses his own intuitions and sociological reflections. The ecological systems theory’s places an “…emphases on the adaptive mechanisms by which social equilibrium is maintained, seeing these as an inevitable basis for social existence…” (Marshall, p.287, 1998). Bronfenbrenner’s sociological thinking incorporates wider environmental issues, which impinges on an individual’s social action, such as contextual systems of relationships that form one’s environmental structure. These environmental layers, which view humans as existing in constant reciprocity with their immediate environment, consist of a number of social landscapes, which comprise of four multiple spheres, known as the Micro, Meso, Exo and Macro systems. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of development stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationship between the organism and various environmental systems, but the relations between such systems themselves (Hetherington, Parke and Schmuckler, 2002).
The four main topics of the framework for ecological risk analysis describe would include problem formulation, the two parts of analysis the characterization of exposure, the characterization of effects and risk characterization (Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. Pgs 402-428). Problem formulation is when the risk managers work together to decide on the purpose of the assessment. They will review the sources, the stressor, and the effects that it will have. This is the first step to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the information.
There are three major elements affected by human activity; carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen. However, in terms of our ecosystem, humans have had a hand in changing the oceans and the atmosphere’s chemical composition and the activities associated with these changes have had a negative impact. Carbon dioxide within the atmosphere is the beginning of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis and addition metabolism changes form and travels through various reservoirs which include living organisms. Plant carbon atoms are then consumed by other living organisms and returned back into the atmosphere by respiration and dead matter.
According to Bernstein (2011) nurture refers to all environmental influence, after the birth of a child that affects development. Hence nurture can be called post natal factors that influence development of people. Lahey (2009) purports that genes and environment work together in a complex way to influence the psychological characteristics of children in what is known as gene environment correlation. Intelligence is an example of the relationship between genes and environment. Feldman (2009) believes that heredity defines people’s general level of intelligence setting an upper limit that regardless of the quality of environment, people cannot exceed.
Ecological systems theory recognizes that both nature and nurture work together to form behavior. While ecological theory acknowledge that development takes place in a social context, they put forth that that process is about the interaction of an individual within her/ his specific environmental context. As ecological theorist, Urie Bronfenbrenner puts forth, the focus must be on the two-way interactions between parent and child and not simply focused on either a biological or child rearing causes of behavior. In the behaviorist model, behavior is shaped by positive or negative “reinforcers”, such as praise or attention, this feedback then forms a person’s behavior. Conversely, ecological systems theory sees that the process of development is a permeable one, and development occurs as the individual and his/her environment reciprocally interact.
Strategic Plan Part II Swott Analysis Business Integrated 475 Your Name February 24, 2013 Tutor Name An environmental issue is “an identifiable component within the whole physical, cultural, demographic, economic, political, regulatory, or technological environment that influences the survival, operations, and growth relevant to an organization” (business dictionary). Inside every organization there could be rules, regulations, and guidelines to actually oversee the behavior of staff and selling selections on your company. The learning center success or failure on your company will certainly be examined from the internal and external environmental factors on your company. Identifying what type of selling strategies the learning center encounter can can would like to remain addressed for your own company to actually succeed. The external environmental factors can affect the business however these factors are can't be managed from the facility.
The public administration themes to be discussed here spotlight the role of leadership and the style of leadership and management that must be fit and adapted to the organization and the setting in which it operates. One prominent theme drawn from this case is the profile of leadership and decision-making displayed by Mr. William Ruckelshaus, who was tapped by President Nixon in 1970 to become the first director of the Environmental Protection Agency. Another key theme is found by examining the flash point where innovative policy was interpreted and ultimately implemented by the organized activities of an agency led by public administrators. Although innumerable nuances and depth of understanding can be extracted from this experience, this case analysis will first focus briefly on elements of leadership through the lens 1 of life-cycle theory. The analysis then shifts to consider how innovative policy reaches the
What arguments would a sociologist use to counter the idea that “Biology is destiny”? The idea that “biology is destiny” is an intrinsic element of what is known as the genetic self, the nature part of the nature or nurture debate. A sociologist will use points with grounds in social influences on the self to argue that rather than biology, there are other elements such as socialization that affect how we behave and are “destined” to be. This paper demonstrates the ideas and research of several sociologists to counter the ‘destiny of biology’ as it were, to show that development and behaviour are not pre-determined by genetics but instead by other, social-related factors, and goes on to level the argument with the notion that perhaps both are mutually influential on one another in the outcome of the self. Determinism is the philosophical doctrine that all events, including human action, are ultimately determined by causes external to the will.
The ecological view seeks to find the characteristics and organisation of organisms; therefore it is basically looking to find what it is and what it does. This essay will look at the Gibson Ecological theory of perception, along with the constructivist theory (Gregory). There are many debates on whether direct or indirect theories are more highly related to visual perception, this argument will discuss the pros and cons of both theories. Gibson developed the ecological theory in WW2 when he was preparing films for aeroplane pilots. From this he developed the optic flow theory which is one of the three theoretical assumptions on perception.