IB Psychology 1 H435-2 Erikson’s psychological theory of psychosocial development in adolescents has been supported and disputed, showing many strengths and weaknesses, by a multitude of case studies most specifically Rutter et al and Espin et al. Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan and shows how he believes that personality develops in a series of eight different stages. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life and experiencing a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. He believes that if the “stage” is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery but if the stage is handled poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. In Erikson’s view he sees these conflicts centered around developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality.
The cognitive reason why we become like our parents can be explained by Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development. He states that children build schemas, and a teenager may have a schema that their parents are wrong or not what the teenager wants to be. Piaget then states that teenagers can assimilate, or change their existing schemas, by interpreting new experiences. By assimilating their existing schemas they may determine that their parents are what they want to be. The stage Piaget would have put this type of teenager in is the Concrete Operational Stage.
This would affect a child’s social and communication development as he/she would find it difficult to listen and speak to peers staff and carers this could also affect their behaviour possibly becoming frustrated and quite angry Whatever concern you have about a Childs development in any area, you should always share it with others. In primary school pupils, refer to the class teacher in the first instance, followed by the SENCO (Special Educational Needs Coordinator). In secondary schools you may wish to go straight to the
Sometimes this is learned behaviour from home and is hard for young children to understand that you are telling them it is not okay to call names because of someone’s skin colour or how they look . It is important to be consistent and reinforce that it’s not okay and it is very upsetting and hurtful. How would they feel if they were left out. We need to teach our children empathy from an early age and to respect each other regardless of race, age, gender, how we look, where were from. 2.2 Any form of prejudice and discrimination can have a severe negative effect throughout a person’s life.
Mrs. Jenkins English 10E 23 September 2012 Coming to Terms with Adult Life “The Catcher in The Rye” can strongly be considered a "coming of age" novel due to the main theme, which is about Holden, a young teenage boy who has to get used to adulthood and is struggling in many ways to accept it. Many situations and themes in the novel, such as different signs of immaturity at different levels, and having trouble with accepting society and struggling with many issues, many of which he does not realize, are reasons why the novel could be classified in this genre. Holden's struggle with school is an example of how he struggles to come to terms with the adult world. He sees all the flaws that adulthood has when being surrounded by the situations and people in school. He sees pure phoniness, cruelty, and lack of individuality in school life as everyone considers themselves part of a group or else they are worthless, which is the way he sees himself.
Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erikson offer different views of how a child’s mental abilities progress throughout their education. Piaget believed that children, at certain stages in their lives, regardless of intelligence, were not able to understand things in particular ways, simply because they were not old enough. He thought that development had to precede learning. Vygotsky, on the other hand, theorized that children acquire their level of intelligence by the culture they live in and that children learning different things helped them to develop intellectually. Erikson felt as if the environment played a major role in a child’s development and that every person goes through specific stages in their lives.
This is the start development of ego and super ego. This is around the time the child starts school and is the awakening sexual energy. The final stage is Genital Stage which starts from puberty to adult hood. During this final stage the child is no longer a child and develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This last stage is very different form the other stages Freud explains.
However it seems educators would rather play it “safe” avoiding adult themes in school-assigned literature and sticking to what they have deemed as age-appropriate for students. The term “age-appropriate” has been widely used as a proxy for beliefs & values conveyed on children & how much control they have over them. If you take a look on what was considered age-appropriate even 50 years ago and fast forward to our present day society it clear that we are not living in the same world. What was once the traditional family structure; two parents, one that often stayed home to care for their children has deteriorated and children are receiving less and less time supervised by an adult at home making a child’s time is school even more
Adolescents may not really want to cut the parental ties, but the adults on the other hand may have problems with their child becoming independent. (Bandura 1972 in Gross 1992). A Childs personality may decide whether they are going to be independent or not. Up until the child starts puberty they do not really have any major problems, but when they start the puberty stage their identification with same sex parent is weakened, but their dependence on the opposite sex parent strengthens. (Freud and daughter in Gross 1992).
Kohlberg was concerned more with reasoning for each participant’s decision rather than their answer (Cherrie, 2012). Kohlberg’s research resulted in the following levels and stages of moral development; Level 1. Preconventional Morality • Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.