P1-explaining the basic psychological approaches Behaviourist One of the best-known aspects of behavioural learning theory is classical conditioning. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.
While taking accurate measurements from the dog about how much it was salivating; Pavlov noticed that the dog would salivate at the sight of food as well as tasting it. Due to this; he carried out an experiment which sought to discover whether he could connect the dogs response to food to a neutral stimulus. To do this Pavlov presented the dog with a neutral stimulus, in this case a bell which Pavlov rung and to which the dog did not salivate to; he then presented the dog with both the ringing bell and a bowl of food, the unconditioned stimulus, this is repeated until the dog connects the ringing
After many trials of pairing, with the light or the bell, with the food, eventually the dogs began to associate being feed with the stimuli if the light or the bell. Upon making the association with the light or bell with the food, the dogs would then begin to salivate when the light turned on or when the bell was rung. The dogs had been conditioned to salivate at the sight of the light being turned on, or at the sound of a bell being rung. Pavlov’s discovery of conditioned reflexes led to the modern day theory of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning considers stimuli and response: unconditioned stimuli, unconditioned response, conditioned stimuli, and conditioned
Classical conditioning occurs when a new stimulus becomes capable of evoking a given response when that new stimulus is presented together with a stimulus that already evokes that response. How this occurred with Pavlov’s dogs is that when Pavlov or his assistants (dressed in white coats), would place food in front of the dogs, they would start salivating. What started to happen was that the dogs would begin to
Diet for Dogs with Bladder Stones Dietary therapy is useful for treating and preventing struvite stones in pets. Since the struvite stones form in urine with a high pH (alkaline urine), diets should help to maintain a low pH (acidic urine). Diets with animal-based protein sources are most important in maintaining an acidic pH, while vegetarian or cereal-based diets are more likely to cause and alkaline urine. Homemade diets are preferred for dogs with chronic bladder disorders such as bladder stones. If processed foods must be fed, most holistic veterinarians prefer canned diets, which contain large amounts of water, rather than dry foods.
This short essay hopes to show how the theory behind the CBT model of counselling plays its part in the evolution of the struggle to understand the human psyche. At the beginning of the twentieth century behaviour therapy started to evolve which derived ...from the theories of human learning... p171 (1) Experiments were carried out on animals rather than humans for research. A Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) ibid. whose interest at that time was the digestive system of dogs, had developed through his research and what is now known as “Classical Conditioning” “that dogs would salivate at the sight of food”. This observation lead Pavlov on to the belief that the dog learnt that at the sight of a stimulus it meant food, therefore it had “learnt” Dogs would normally salivate at the smell of food this is known as “unconditioned reflex” continuing with his experiments he found that by using other stimulus in this case a bell he could condition the dog to salivate on its sound even to the extent of the dog salivating at the sound of the bell though there was no food, “Classical Conditioning”.
Behaviourism as a science accounts for behaviour in terms of observable acts. It focuses on a basic kind of learning called conditioning, which involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses, sometimes called stimulus-response (“S-R”) psychology. To explain human behaviour two types of conditioning are used: classical and operational conditioning. The classical conditioning has been described by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) as an outcome of experiments with dogs. He studied the salivation in dogs and concluded that a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus to a dog and make it salivate, when it is paired with food.
Ivan Pavlov, a Russian Physiologist and Nobel Prize winner (in recognition of his work on the Physiology of Digestion) discovered classical conditioning, which paved way to better understand the process of learning. Pavlov discovered that organisms respond to certain stimulus through an innate reflex but the response can also be conditioned as well. The Classical conditioning paradigm involves pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus (US) which usually produces an unconditioned response (UR). After repeatedly pairing the neutral stimulus with US, neutral stimulus will become a conditioned stimulus (CS) which will then elicit a conditioned response (CR). Pavlov used dogs to further prove his theory.
General anesthetics render the dog unconscious. They can be given by injection or inhalation. Light anesthesia sedates or relaxes the dog and may be suitable for short procedures, such as removing porcupine quills. For prolonged surgeries or extremely painful procedures such as surgery on the eye or orthopedic procedures, the dog may need to be kept at a deeper level of anesthesia. Preparing your animal for General Anesthesia There are several steps that may be helpful for a successful general anesthesia and surgery.
AGGRESSIVE DOGS 2 Aggressive Dogs The “Big Idea” that I chose to write about is Aggressive Dogs. The thesis statement that I have chosen is “Oweners are responisble for canine aggression, due to the fact of how the train and raise their animal”. I will be mainly focusing on pit bull dogs. We can solve this problem (and raise awarness) through educating pit bull owners. I think the thesis statement works good with the topic due to the research that I have conducted.