Unit 8 - P1

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Explain the principal psychological perspectives – P1 There are six psychological perspectives in which all have different theorists. These consist of: Behaviourism – Pavlov/Skinner Social Learning – Bandura Humanistic – Rogers/Maslow Psychodynamic – Freud/Erikson Cognitive – Piaget/Kelly Biological - Gesell Behaviourism - The first psychological perspective is the behaviourist perspective. This involves a conditioned and unconditioned response and stimulus. This theory was conducted by Pavlov. An unconditioned response is a response to something that occurs regularly when an unconditioned stimulus is presented, e.g: the startle response to a loud noise. An unconditioned stimulus is stimuli that regularly and consistently lead to an automatic response from the loud noise. A conditioned response is a new learned response to previously neutral stimuli which mimics the response to the unconditioned stimulus. A conditioned stimulus is a neutral stimulus that, when paired with the unconditioned stimulus, produces a learned response, just as the unconditioned response used to. Another aspect the theory focuses on is positive and negative reinforcement. Skinner investigated negative and positive reinforcement and how it influenced the behaviour of an individual to do a certain thing. Social Learning - The second theory is the social learning theory. This theory is based on how we learn from a social setting, that we are influenced by the people around us e.g: our peers, family, friends, siblings etc. Bandura believes that every individual has a desire to fit in and be accepted; the individual will change their behaviour, beliefs and views publicly in order to fit the norms of a particular group, although privately, they are unchanged. Humanistic - The third theory is the humanistic perspective. Maslow believed that every individual is seeking to become

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