It looks at the factors which end in us behaving in a given way and look at the conditions in which cause us to behave in that way. Social psychology looks at a wide range of social topics which include group behaviour, social perceptions, conformity, aggression and prejudice. When children learn they acquire their behaviour from their parents and other children, from a young age they learn from their parents how to behave in public, the correct use of manors and social norms. But on interaction with other children they learn how to share, society’s values which other children have picked up and how to behave in social situations. Also evolutional (inherited from parents) could have an effect on how a child behaves as in the child’s genetics it might be that they are susceptible to violence this means that the child may have more violent tendencies.
Reinforcers and punishment are specific types of consequences. Reinforcement encourages a behavior, while punishment discourages a behavior. Reinforcement is any consequence of behavior that increases the chances of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcement may be either positive or negative. Positive reinforcement occurs when a stimulus is presented after a response, thus encouraging the response to be repeated.
While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviours by watching other people. Known as observational learning, this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviours. Basic Social Learning Concepts There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn through observation.
It is like if I'm given a task to do, I work toward satisfying the standard in order to achieve my own self goals. The standards are the people that are in and around society that have developed and grew the standard so everyone follows them the same way. This is not the way with the theory of utilitarianism. The theory of utilitarianism contradicts with Psychological Egoism in which the utilitarianism sees whatever an person or individual is doing, it must be to the interest of the general group of people or the society. So between Psychological Egoism and Utilitarianism there is a huge conflict of who impress.
Social learning theory comes from the idea that human beings ability to learn new behaviours by the way we see that certain individual perform that behaviour. For example if a teenager saw a fellow friend act in a certain manner of way then he/she is most likely to copy that behaviour. Gender, statues, fame, prestige, competence are all different factors that can make us imitate another person. Solomon Asch (1950) came up with a concept called the “majority influences. The people that we get inspired by are called role models.
Sociology lets us define and explain human behavioralism such as Beliefs. Specific ideas that people in society hold to be true is the root existence of Beliefs. Beliefs are particular matters which people hold to be true or false. Values pertain to beliefs, Values are culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful which serves as a broad guideline for social living. People sharing a culture are looking at the same Values to make choices about how to live.
Psychodynamic is the next theory that fits as well. This is associated more with childhood experiences and the unconscious mind of the individual. According to Grove (1994), “But are persons really responsible for their actions in the sense that they (1) assess the possible alternative courses of action available to them, (2) choose a particular course, and (3) construct a complex set of acts to achieve intended results” (p. 74). Our laws, our religions, and our emotional responses are established on the principles that these are factual intentions. When the events of others have an effect on our lives, and we recognize their reactions to be determined entirely by power beyond their limitations, there is then no cause for feelings of either anger or gratitude (Grove,
The superego is formed as a result of socialisation and consists of all the instructions, morals and values that are repeatedly enforced as we are growing up. It takes on the form of a conscience and also represents our view of our ideal self. The main role of the superego is to try to overpower the activity of the id. The ego tries to balance the demands of the id and the superego. It is the rational part of the mind and is always seeking to do what is most helpful for the individual.
61).and orientation as well as motivation to learn. Self-Directed Approach It is the need and ability of an individual to control own learning capacity for the personal growth in contrast to androgogy that focuses on mutual benefit to oneself and surroundings. It has various goals associated with it. Elucidating a few:- 1) - Accepting responsibility of one’s own learning. 2) - Fostering of transformational learning that is the critical reflection is defined as the historical, geographical and cultural reasons for one’s own needs, wants and interests.
On the other hand, cognitivists believe that by reflecting on our own experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world. Though theses two schools of psychology are very much different, they do have their similarities. Behaviorism and cognitivism are similar in that they both attempt to explain and describe how learning occurs in individuals. Both are also valuable learning theories. They observe the response individuals make to different situations or different conditions.