Payments to the poor are generally levied from the working classes. They claim that a policy of "containment" is effectively pursued - the labour movement has been contained within the system. Kincaid believes "that some are rich because some are poor". Marxists claim that the capitalist system creates poverty. Herbert J. Gans has identified a number of functions that make poverty "useful" to capitalists.
Marx argues that the ideologies in the superstructure cover up the inequalities of society; he argues that these ideologies justify inequality because they are not neutral and therefore they serve the interests of the ruling class. Marx argues that the education system is like the workforce as it teaches us to be docile workers and accept that inequality is inevitable. Bowles and Gintis support Marx’s traditional view of the link between education and the nature of work in Capitalist societies. They argue that the education system integrate people into various aspects of the capitalist production process. The organisation of the education system mirrors the work force in many ways such as disciplining students to the demands of work- something they call ‘the crucial ingredient of job adequacy’.
Furthermore, item A also says, "sociologists see the education system as performing a vital role in modern societies." One functionalist called Durkheim holds this view; he believes in social solidarity and specialist skills. Durkheim argues that society needs a sense of solidarity so that it's individual members feel themselves to be part of a single community. He argues that without social solidarity, social life and cooperation would be impossible because each individual would pursue their own selfish desires. The education system helps to create social solidarity by transmitting society's culture from one generation to the next.
Marxist believes that society is in a state of conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. They say that the capitalist bosses exploit the working class in order to keep the rich- rich and the poor- poor. Engels (1891) highlights this in society. He explains that the family remained monogamous in order for families to find a rightful heir to inherit private property. This meant that the divide between the rich and the poor increased.
Cooper another sociologist said the N.F is used to reinforce the ruling class ideology in order to keep the proletariat in a state of false class consciousness. This is useful as it identifies the importance that the N.F is more
Compare and contrast either two different theoretical approaches to the study of sociology OR two different methodological approaches used by sociologists Sociologists approach the study of society in different ways. Two concepts of society are functionalism and Marxism. Functionalists believe that different parts of society work together to keep the society running whereas Marxists believe societies are unequal and unfair. Both concepts differ in their views of how society operates for instance a Marxist would claim that there are only 2 classes and it is very hard to progress up a class whereas a functionalist would disagree and claim the harder you work, the more you achieve and the better your social position. Functionalism came from Emile Durkheim.
If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. I think that functionalism and the whole theory is similar to the human body all organs have to work together in order for the body to function properly and if one organ fails the whole body is affected. [http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/functionalism.htm] Marxism (Karl Marx 1818-1883) The Marxist theory is based on the unfairness of society through wealth by the capitalist economic system and also the effects it has on individuals and society. Economic structures (financial) and social classes are key to Marxist thinking. Marx’s key principles are: • Humans need to work together to survive • Production is a social activity/enterprise • Human beings need to produce things to survive (food, shelter and material goods) • Land • Natural resources (for production of material goods) • Technology • Labour Karl Marx believed that instead of the above society is made up of economic power and wealth (capitalism).
Whilst in this process the children become tax payers who then support the government. If all runs smoothly the society is stable. Marxism Marxism is believed to be the conflict model and the structuralist model. The idea was first approached by Karl Marx. He believed that someone’s behaviour was shaped by society but he also believed that someone’s social class defined the person within it.
Functionalists also believe that society is based on consensus (agreement) and socialised (brought up) to agree on how to behave (norms) and what is right and wrong (values). They look at society on a macro scale (large) and they want to generalize their ideas to the whole of society. For example they look at what education does for society as a whole rather than certain people in society. Functionalists believe that all parts of society has a function (job or role to do) to ensure that society runs smoothly and everything is harmonious. For example education’s function is to ensure that people are educated to be good at the job they will do after leaving school.
A theory is a set of interrelated propositions or principles designed to answer a question or explain a particular phenomenon; it provides us with a perspective. Sociological theories help us to explain and predict the social world in which we live. This paper discusses the three perspectives of Sociology; functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionism perspectives. Thus, comparing and contrasting these different perspectives with one another by giving background and example. The pioneering European sociologists offered a broad conceptualization of the fundamentals of society and its workings.