What is the cough reflex? The cough reflex is used to clear sputum and irritants that are in the nasal passages and pharynx. b. Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing: The cilia in her trachea move mucus up from the lungs, copious amounts of mucus trigger the cough reflex. 3.
C) Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? There are macrophages presents (wandering phagocytes) that remove dust particles and other debris from the alveolar space. D) How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lung? The lung capacity is decreased because the air space is already filled with mucus and fluids therefore she can’t take in enough oxygen. The extra mucus and fluids put extra pressure on the lungs.
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS: Pneumonia: Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. The infection may be caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Pneumonia causes inflammation in your lungs air sacs, also referred to as alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe. The invading organism causes symptoms, in part, by provoking a large immune response in the lungs.
Smokers’ cough turns into chronic bronchitis, caused by the deteriorated cilia. Mucus thickens and becomes greater in amount, thickening the lining of the bronchioles, resulting in difficulty breathing. The bronchioles steadily lose their elasticity which prevents them from absorbing the pressure on the alveoli, causing the alveoli to rupture; smoking-induced emphysema. This progression results in a worsening cough, wheezing, difficult breathing, and fatigue. As these structural changes are occurring, there are also cellular or molecular changes taking place in the lungs.
The secondary cause is related to an existing infection or disease. Each of these are caused by different irritants that result in the same disruption of normal perfusion. The attacks on the lung lead to alveolar inflammation and edema that causes low ventilation and blood and fluid to be pushed into the capillaries. This leads to a stasis in the lung’s gas perfusion and creates a pressure that makes it harder for the individual to breath (Anatomical Chart Company, 2010, p. 100). The first signs and symptoms of any infection should immediately be put to the attention of the health care provider.
URINARY INCONTINENCE By: Julie Ross WHAT IS URINARY INCONTINENCE? Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine; in simple terms, to wee when you don't intend to. It is the inability to hold urine in the bladder because voluntary control over the urinary sphincter is either lost or weakened. Manifestations •Stress incontinence Urine leaks when you exert pressure on your bladder by coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising or lifting something heavy. •Urge incontinence.
Dysfunction of the chest wall 3. Dysfunction of the lung parenchyma and 4. Other causes. Decreased respiratory drive Decreased respiratory drive may occur with severe brain injury, large lesions of the brain stem (multiple sclerosis), use of sedative medications, and metabolic disorders such as hypothyroidism. These disorders impair the normal response of chemoreceptors in the brain to normal respiratory stimulation.
Smoking: * Causes the platelets in your blood to clump together easily by making your blood cells more "sticky" and more likely to form clots. Clumping platelets can then block your coronary arteries and cause a heart attack. * Can cause spasms in your coronary arteries, which can reduce the blood flow to your heart in a way similar to that of atherosclerosis. * Can trigger irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). * Lowers "good" cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, or HDL).
Not keeping clean after sex can also cause bacteria to get into your system and cause an infection. Also, using a spermicide or a diaphragm during sex can also cause a UTI. Some women are more prone to bladder infections if they do not drink enough fluids, have diabetes, or are pregnant. Kidney stones or enlarges prostate glands also increase the risk of infection because they block the flow of urine from the bladder. Using feminine hygiene products that contain deodorant can also cause urinary tract infections despite their publicity in the media.
Stroke Awareness Health Assessment The self-risk assessment I chose to complete was about strokes. A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is temporarily interrupted or disturbed. Being that the brain requires a constant flow of oxygen any interruptions could prove to be fatal. The two types of strokes are Ischemic or hemorrhagic. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by excess buildup of plague on the blood vessel walls that narrows blood flow dramatically.