A. How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx spread into her sinuses?
The infection will be able to spread into her sinuses because the sinuses are connected to the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and nasal passages. The infection is able to move around in all of these areas due to them being connected to each other and being of one system.
B. What is the cough reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing.
The cough reflex is a long and deep inhalation followed by the closing of the glottis, this causes a strong exhalation that pushes the glottis open and sends air through the respiratory passages. Stimulus for the reflex could be a foreign body in the larynx, trachea, or epiglottis. Cari’s body is causing the cough reflex due to mucus and fluid buildup in her lungs.
C. Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter?
Alveolar macrophage protects the lungs by wondering around the alveoli spacing collecting dust particles and debris. Smoking has caused the cilia in the respiratory passages to become paralyzed and secrete excess amounts of mucus, macrophages are being sent to her lungs continuously and is getting stuck in the mucus instead of fighting off the pathogens.
D. How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lungs?
Cari is having issues with getting adequate oxygen by the pressure of fluid and mucus buildup in her lungs by not allowing her lungs to fully expand to get the quality of breath her body needs.
E. How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia?
Cari would have to put forth more of an effort to get a full breath due to the fluid buildup causing pressure and also blocking oxygen from dispersing to the appropriate areas.