Unit 4222-265 Causes and Spread of Infection.

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Unit 4222-265 Causes and spread of Infection. outcome1: Understand the causes of infections 1:1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Infections are the result of the body’s inability to fight off microorganisms that cause disease or infection: Bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria are organisms that are found almost everywhere. They are found naturally in humans, as well as plants and animals. Bacteria multiply by themselves to spread. Bacteria rapidly reproduce and make toxins that kill or damage cells. They differ from viruses, fungi and parasites because they do not always cause harm, sometimes they can be beneficial. In fact only 1% of bacteria are harmful. Viruses can only grow inside the cells of living organisms. They are not living in their own and in that way are different to bacteria, parasites and fungi. All living organisms can contract viruses: humans, plants, fish and animals. Viruses are spread from host to host. eg coughing or sneezing. Fungi Most people will recognise fungi from mushrooms and toadstools or possibly baking yeast. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms which mean that all the cells have membranes. Some fungi have beneficial uses. For example, penicillin and yeast for baking. Thrush is a common fungal infection. Parasites are small organisms which depend can only live on a host. Plants, animals, humans, fish, birds and reptiles can all be host to parasites. Head lice, thread and other worms are all parasites; they survive by feeding on the blood of their host. Some bacteria and viruses could be considered parasites. 1:2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacterial Infections: Salmonellas/ food poisoning, tuberculosis/TB, MRSA, coccidiosis, food poisoning, dysentery, bronchitis, ear infections, tonsillitis. Viral

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