Other fungi can cause illness. One example is Candida — a yeast that can cause infection. Candida can cause thrush — an infection of the mouth and throat — in infants and in people taking antibiotics or who have an impaired immune system. Fungi are also responsible for skin conditions such as athlete’s foot and ringworm. A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism to the detriment of the host organism.
1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria are one celled organisms (not all of which are harmful). Some types of bacteria live and multiply in the environment whereas others are adapted to be inside human or animals hosts. Rates of multiplication can vary from minutes to months depending on the type of bacteria. Viruses are much smaller than cells and are basically just a capsule that contains genetic material. They have to invade cells and use the cellular machinery to live and reproduce.
They also feed on many Bacteria in decaying matter organisms to survive. Parasites are organisms that attach themselves to a host to infect, reproduce or spread diseases that it would be carrying. (2) Common illnesses and infections caused by Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi and parasites would be as follows. Bacteria which is present in food for example can cause Food Poisoning, Salmonella, Botulism, and other internal infections of the Stomach. Typical Viruses are illnesses like smallpox, measles, mumps and tuberculosis etc which can be contracted by touch or being within an environment that has the virus in the air.
Bacteria usually reproduce via binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction where the bacteria replicates its DNA then divides itself into two identical cells. Unlike viruses, bacteria do not need a host cell (although they still need nutrients) to reproduce. Harmful bacteria are referred to as pathogens. These pathogens cause disease that usually start in a specific location but when left untreated, can cause septiceamia (the blood becomes infected and unusable by the body) which leads to shock and ultimately death. Most bacterial infections produce pus, a substance containing dead white blood cells.
Fay Chambers Unit 4223-008 Causes and spread of infection Bacteria are single celled organisms; they are among the most successful life forms on Earth and can survive in all habitats. Some bacteria are good for us. ‘Friendly’ bacteria for example help us to digest food, whilst other forms of bacteria can cause serious illness. The kinds of bacteria that cause infection are called pathogenic bacteria. Many bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics although some strains are now becoming resistant.
They are also found in radioactive waste, soil, plants, water ect.Some bacteria are completely harmless and help with our digestive system. The only place that bacteria aren’t found are where humans have sterilized. Some bacteria can cause diseases if they end up in the wrong part of our body. 1,1 Viruses are too small to be seen by the naked eye. They are even smaller then bacteria.
Parasites – an organism that feeds and is dependant of its host. 1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria – Lyme disease, Tuberculosis, tetanus, MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) Viruses – polio, Norovirus, common cold, flu, chicken pox Fungi – tinea pinus, athletes foot, oral thrush Parasites- worms, ticks, lice, mites 1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’ Infection – is an invasion of a hosts organisms bodily tissues by a disease causing organism. Colonisation – occurs when any one or more species populate a specific area. 1.4 Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection’ A systemic infection is so named because the pathogen that causes it, and often the symptoms that it causes, are spread throughout the systems of the body, instead of being localized in one area -- as they are in a local infection. Systemic infections are not necessarily more severe than local infections, they just affect a larger proportion of the body.
Localised infection~ Is where the pain can be pinpointed and is coming from the cause itself and the area that it homes at, this would be things like cuts/wounds to the skin or an ingrown toenail. 1.5 Poor personal hygiene, incorrect disposal of rubbish, waste, chemicals and clinical contamination, poor hand hygiene, not wearing P.P.E when needed, not storing or cooking foods properly, not complying with cleaning rotas, overcrowding when an illness is apparent, not following policies or reporting outbreaks or episodes of disease, direct contact with bodily fluids. 2.1 All organisms need different things to grow and thrive, they all need somewhere to grow for instance….. A host,
Disease Yersinia pestis The Plague Jesus Urquijo Biology 113 Lab March 18, 2013 Microbes are what make the world what it is today. They are found in nearly every environment on earth. Each species has its own way of getting nutrients and adapting to its environment, such as pH, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and enzymes that are essential for optimum living. The majority of bacteria living on earth are harmless if not beneficial to the human race, but those few microbes that are harmful to humans are those that cause disease. They are referred to as pathogens and need to be observed so we can prevent the spreading of disease caused by those particular microbes.
causes and spread of infection outcome 1 understand the causes of infection · identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria: Bacteria are living things that are neither plants nor animals, but belong to a group all by themselves. They are very small--individually not more than one single cell--however there are normally millions of them together, for they can multiply really fast.Bacteria are prokaryotes (single cells that do not contain a nucleus). Bacteria is a single celled organism and, unlike viruses, do not need a living host to reproduce. Viruses: A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Most viruses are too small to be seen directly with a light microscope.