Unit 33 L5

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1. UNDERSTAND THE NEUROLOGY OF DEMENTIA 1.1 Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome Dementia syndrome is caused by damage to the brain cells; this damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate each other. The most common causes of dementia are called neurodegenerative diseases, and include Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. When brain cells can no longer communicate normally, thinking, behaviour and feelings can be affected. Dementia is an umbrella term for number of diseases; "over 130 are known today" that affect the memory, behaviour, and motor skills. This causes vary depending on the disease, but largely the presence of "plaques and triangles" on the neurons of the brain are found with people with Alzheimer’s. Plaques are proteins that the body no longer breaks down and allows to build up, those get between the neurons that disrupt message transmission. The tangles are tau proteins within the neurons becoming abnormal. Types of Dementia Alzheimer's disease: This is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for about half of all cases. Alzheimer's disease is at least hereditary in that it tends to run in families. (Just because a relative has Alzheimer's disease, however, does not mean that another family member will have the disease.) In this disease, abnormal protein deposits in the brain destroy cells in the areas of the brain that control memory and mental functions. People with Alzheimer's disease also have lower-than-normal levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters that control important brain functions. Alzheimer's disease is not reversible, and no known cure exists. However, certain medications can slow its progress. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/dementia_overview/page2_em.htm Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive,
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