This means early experiences play a critical role in our lives. Freud believed the human mind has both unconscious and conscious areas. The unconscious part is seen as being dominated by the id, a primitive part of the human personality that seeks only gratification and pleasure. It isn’t concerned with social rules, only with self-gratification and it is driven by the ‘pleasure principle.’ It is said psychopaths are ID led. The disregard for our consequences of behaviour is referred to as ‘primary process thinking’.
His work on sexuality and perversions led to the wider theory of sexuality whereby he differentiated the sexual aim (the desire for pleasure) and the object (the person or thing used to fulfil the desire). He asserted that sexuality is more than just genital copulation between adults and this work is the background to his theory on infantile sexuality. He emphasised particular erogenous zones as being of primary importance at different stages of infancy. Each stage impacts in three significant ways: physical focus where the child’s energy may be concentrated and their gratification obtained; psychologically through demands being made of the child by the outside world as he or she develops – either doing too much or not enough of what is ideal;
It is a generalised concept that if the cause of the symptoms were tackled it would only be logical that the symptoms would then cease. The Psychodynamic theory assumes the personality is split into three parts, the id (most primitive, instinctive part we have from birth), the ego (logical, balances out the id and superego) and the superego or moral part of our personality. These areas influence our behaviour as well as the defence mechanisms of the ego, and the psychosexual stages of development. Defence mechanisms are used
In psychology people such as Freud, Maslow and Rogers play an important role in understanding the self, whereas society can be explained by sociological figures such as Durkheim in sociology. The psychologist, Freud’s theory of personality suggests that our personality is structured by the interactions of our id, superego and ego. The id being our pleasure principle; it is the selfish part of our self and causes us to desire things such as food and sex. It is an unconscious part of our personality and present from birth. The superego is our morality principle which we develop from three to six years old, it helps us to define the difference between right and wrong and Freud suggested that it is often in conflict with the id.
The three theories I chose to compare and contrast is Psychodynamic theory, Behavioral theory, and Personality and crime. Psychodynamic theory says that some people encounter problems in during their early development that cause an imbalance in their personality. People that have psychosis primitive impulses control their personality. Some have mood disorders and are fearful. They may say they hear voices telling them what to do.
Freud believed that it was possible to link the psychosexual stages of development with adult neuroses. Freud identified that if the psychosexual stages of development where in any way interrupted at a certain time, then this would cause problems in later life. “Psychosexual development according to Freud proceeds as a series of interactions between dispositions and environment, mediated by a developing ego.” (Freud & Horney, Grossman,1986, p5) Thus, Freud stated that there were different stages of psychosexual
Outline and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to abnormality The psychodynamic approach assumes that experiences in our earliest years can affect our emotions, attitudes and behaviour in later years without us being aware that it is happening. Freud suggested the mind or psyche has three parts: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. Freud suggested that individuals can never be aware of the contents of the unconscious. Freud argued that childhood experiences play a crucial part in adult development, including the development of adult personality. Every child must pass through the so-called psycho-sexual stages; how a child experiences these stages plays a crucial role in the development of his/her personality.
The unconscious mind is when you are doing or thinking something without being alert or aware that you are doing it. Along the idea of the unconscious mind Freud also developed the concept of the ‘ID’, the ‘Ego’ and the ‘Superego’. The id is described as an impulsive, selfish side to our personality which is ruled by a pleasure principle, the superego is the moral part of our personality which recognises right from wrong; and our ego is the part of our mind which tries to rationalise and arbitrate both sides of our thoughts. Freud believed that there were two main causes of abnormality in general. One of these was childhood traumas and the idea that a bad memory from our childhood is so traumatic that it buries itself in our subconscious.
In his findings, Freud believed the human mind was make up of three main components; the ego, the ID, and the superego. Primary urges being on the ID, personality related being of the ego, and superego described as a part if a person’s personality that values ideas held within from their environment during childhood, also known as peers, parents, and a variety of cultural influences. Humanistic psychology’s primary focus is a person’s free will concept of self- actualization and interpersonal growth. The humanistic school of thought was developed in response to behaviorism and psychoanalysis. The differences among the early school of thought and the humanistic approach is that the emphasis is on helping individuals reach their highest potential rather than being the center of abnormal human behavior.
You could view children becoming abusers themselves via Freud's ego and super ego theory, which it could be argued that in early development a child sees the way to get what they want and or need via coersion, violence, complaining, yelling, or how ever the child perceives the parent obtaining that which they want. We could also argue from Erikson's psychosocial stages that the children are not being taught what correct hope, will, love, trust, fidelity, care and wisdom truly are. My personal theory is that if we look into Bandura's social learning theory that can give us a better understanding of the development of children into adult abusers or victims. “Children learn to hit by watching other people in real life and on television. Adults learn job skills by observing or being shown them by others.” (Bandura, A.)