Unit 29 Task 1 P1

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Principal Psychological Perspectives and Understanding Individual Development P1- Explain the principal psychological perspectives applied to the understanding of the development of individuals Cognitive Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Theories: * According to psychologist Jean Piaget, children progress through a series of four key stages of cognitive development. Each stage is marked by shifts in how children understand the world: the Sensorimotor Stage, from birth to age 2; the Preoperational Stage, from age 2 to about age 7; the Concrete Operational Stage, from age 7 to 11; and the Formal Operational Stage, which begins in adolescence and spans into adulthood. Cognitive Stage | | Sensorimotor Stage(Birth-2 years) | During the sensorimotor stage infants learn mostly through trial and error learning. Children initially rely on reflexes, eventually modifying them to adapt to their world. Behaviors become goal directed, progressing from concrete to abstract goals. Objects and events can be mentally represented by the child. | Preoperational Stage(2-7 years) | This stage of development allows a child to increase his/her mental representation of objects, generally through make-believe play. Piaget states that language is the most flexible means of mental representation, but that children do not yet have the capability to solely use language as a means of representation. Rather, children perform actions as a means to master language and symbolic thought. Sociodramatic play, in which children play with others and create elaborate plots and characters, culminates in the understanding of representational thought and activity. However, children in this stage still struggle to understand dual representation - the
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