Unit 29 P1

6063 Words25 Pages
I will be explaining the principle psychological perspectives applied to the understanding of the development of individuals. One of the major theorists of cognitive development was Jean Piaget, who argued that cognitive development occurs in four different stages: 1. The sensori-motor stage (0-2 Years): during this stage children are very egocentric; they cannot see the world from the viewpoints of others. From birth to around 1 month old, infants use reflexes like rooting and sucking, relying on their five senses to explore the world around them. A couple of months on from this stage, an infant would learn to coordinate sensation with two types of schema: habit and circular reactions, causing a primary circular reaction. An example of this is when an infant tries to recreate an event that happened unintentionally like sucking their thumb. The infant then eventually becomes more object-orientated and understand object permanence, understanding that objects still exist when not in sight. Piaget carried out a study to see at what age children acquired object permanence. The method of this was Piaget hid a toy under a blanket while the child was watching, and studied whether the child searched for the hidden object. Looking for the toy was evidence of object permanence and Piaget believed that the child could only search for the toy if they had a mental representation of it. He found that children around 8 months old started looking for the toy and it is at this age that they have object permanence because they are able to from a mental representation of the object in their head. Many researchers had adopted the child’s looking as a measure of object permanence. For example, Bower had findings that proved that object permanence occurred in children well below 9 months old. He had yielded four findings: the first in 7 week old infants that were found to
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