Each of these is converted in a number of steps to pyruvate (another 3-carbon sugar), a process that releases some energy, and a hydrogen atom, which is transferred for use in the respiratory chain by the co-enzyme NAD. The Pyruvate molecules then diffuse into the mitochondrial matrices within the cell. They are then converted to acetyl co-enzyme A (a two-carbon compound) with a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) molecule and a Hydrogen atom (taken up by co-enzyme NAD again) given off. Acetyl Co-enzyme A then enters the Krebs cycle. In this metabolic cycle the 2-carbon acetyl compound dissociates from the co-enzyme A and is converted into a 4-carbon oxaloacetate compound, which in turn is converted into a 6-carbon citrate compound.
Testing the reaction rate of fermentation based on alterations in ph solutions. Emily Anderson Abstract The experiment was conducted to determine what effect different ph solutions would have on the reaction rate of yeast fermentation. It was hypothesized that, the more acidic a ph solution, the slower the reaction rate would be in fermentation process. The reaction rate was judged by the amount of co2 displacent formed in the top of the fermentation tubes every five minutes for twenty minutes intervols. Introduction When the oxygen supply runs short in heavy or prolonged exercise, muscles obtain most of their energy from anaerobic process called glycolysis.
* When CO2 and RuBP combine a 6-Carbon intermediate is formed. This 6-Carbon molecule immediately splits to form two 3-Carbon molecules known as glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) * Using ATP and NADPH2 GP is reduced to form triose phosphate (TP). The NADPH2 returns to its original form (NADP) to be reduced again in the light-dependent reaction. * The TP can either be converted into organic
Biology – Topic 5 – On the wild side. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process where energy from light is used to break apart strong bonds in H20 molecules – hydrogen is combined with CO2 to form glucose, and O2 is released into the atmosphere. Photosynthesis occurs in a series of reactions, but the overall reaction is: 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2 The energy is stored in the glucose until the plants release it by respiration. Plant and animal cells release energy from glucose, this is called respiration. There are two types of respiration: Aerobic (using oxygen) and Anaerobic (no oxygen).
PHOTOSYNTHESIS LAB Jared Topacio Period 3 11/27/12 Introduction: Background information Light travels in electromagnetic waves. Wavelengths, the distance between the crests of the electromagnetic waves, can range from nanometers to kilometers. Visible light is a narrow band from 380nm to 750nm and is necessary for life [AP Biology Eighth Edition]. Autotrophs capture sun energy and convert it into chemical energy. This is called photosynthesis.
Planck's constant: the constant relating the change in energy for a system to the frequency of the electromagnatic radiation absorbed or emitted, equal to 6.626 X 10^-34 J 5. Quantization: the concept that energy can occur only in discrete units called quanta 6. Photon: a quantum of electromagnetic radiation 7. Photoelectric effect: ejection of electrons from a substance by incident electromagnetic radiation, especially by visible light 8. E=mc^2: Einstein's equation proposing that energy has mass; E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light 9.
APES Unit 9 Name___________________________Date__________Period______ The Effects of Radiation on the Germination and Growth of Radish Seeds INTRODUCTION: Gamma radiation is a form of energy similar to X-rays, which, along with other forms of radiation, is emitted from a variety of environmental sources. Two other kinds of radiation are beta radiation and alpha radiation. Beta radiation consists of rapidly moving electrons, and alpha radiation consists of rapidly moving particles that are composed of two protons and two neutrons. Atoms of the same element that differ from one another in the number of neutrons present are called isotopes. Some isotopes of atoms, such as Cobalt 60, are natural sources of gamma radiation.
Water (H2O) is colorless liquid that’s the basis of life on Earth. It contains two hydrogen bonds and is a polar molecule; it has a dipole moment of 1.85D. Volume percent is a method used when preparing solution of liquids. It is defined as Concentration solute (v/v%) = [(volume of solute)/(volume of solution)] x 100%  This experiment is to use volume percent to create different concentration of 3M nitric acid solutions and investigate the effect of different concentration, which creates different strength of intermolecular forces, on the volume of a drop of nitric acid. Research question: What is the effect of different concentration of nitric acid on its volume of its drop?
This is where the reactions occurs. From there the enzyme breaks the bond in the substrate and the enzyme can continue to repeat the process. Catalase is an enzyme found in almost all living organisms. In the human body it is an enzyme that is produced by our liver to break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Even though hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced by our body as a byproduct of our metabolic process, it is very toxic to our body.
A semiconductor is a solar cell that is used to harnesses solar energy and converts it into electricity. The electricity produced by the semi conductor is used by humans. Semi conductors used to harness energy from the sun and photosynthesis have some differences and similarities. First, the semi conductors and photosynthesis are similar as they all aim to trap energy from the sun. Plants use photosynthesis to trap energy from the sun and use it to manufacture food.