However, the argument that carries the greatest weight is that the individuals who led these revolts and were at the forefront of the revolutionary movements were not united themselves in how they wanted Italy to unite. Austria clearly had a central role in putting down many of the revolts and so played an important role in both the failure of the 1820-21 revolutions and the ones that took place between 1848-49. Prior to 1820, Italy was unsettled and highly divided with nationalists, liberals and extremists amongst the masses. As the hostility in Italy increased under Austrian rule, secret societies emerged such as ‘The Carbonari’ – which was particularly popular in Southern Italy. By 1815, the aims of these secret societies changed in the direction of driving out the Austrians and restoring old Monarchs.
Growth of support for facism was a reason for Mussolinis appointment as Prime Minister,however there were many other reasons for Mussolinis appointment as PM, but growth of support was very important for him. The war and the mutilated victory, had an affect on Mussolinis appointment as PM. The main reason wad that the nationalists were bitterly disappointed that italy didn’t make any gains during the war. The nationalists claimed that Italy had been betrayed by the Liberal government, this shows that the nationalists might have wanted to overthrow the Liberal government and therefore supported Mussolini before he was appointed. This links into the title point that Mussolini had a wide support base and that it was growing.
Prior to his taking of Abyssinia, Mussolini’s foreign policy seemed to differ greatly from Hitler’s, for example in 1934 Mussolini sent troops to the Italian border with Austria in reaction to Hitler’s attempt to invade Austria. This move indicates that Mussolini was untrusting of Hitler and made a concentrated effort to ensure that Hitler’s position in the region remain largely unchanged. Moreover his joining of the Stresa Front in 1935 along with Britain and France in a bid to contain Germany would indicate once more that prior to Abyssinia, Mussolini’s position in regards to Germany was one of reluctance and hesitance. However, following Abyssinia, Italy’s international position shifted, with Britain and France condemning the move. Crucially however, Hitler supported Mussolini’s invasion and did not condemn it, and Hitler soon appeared to be Italy’s stronger option within Europe, and so Mussolini steadily synchronised his foreign policy with Hitler’s and it could be argued that it was at this point Mussolini’s foreign policy took the greatest shift.
“A political movement of the right, characterized by the use of systematic violence against political opponents and by the presence of a dominant charismatic leader, that emerged after World War I in a number of European countries primarily Italy and Germany.” (The West and the World, page 476.) Before you can attempt to differentiate the fascist forms of government in Germany and Italy, it is important to recognize how they were similar. Both had similar viewpoints in the sense that they believed their respective countries were special and needed the global respect that they deserved. Germany felt isolated because they had to admit they were wrong in World War I and had to pay retributions for their actions. Italy felt that they wanted to regain the glory they possessed during ancient Rome and wished to create a 20th century Italian Empire in the Mediterranean.
Metternich aimed to stop the revolution in Naples from spreading to other parts of the country, as it was obvious, as it was the first major uprising that it had the potential to be big enough to damage the Austrian rule in Italy, King Ferdiand had promised a constitution which was not being granted when they wanted and General Pepe was appointed as leader of the revolutionists and he was to be made leader of the new government. At the Congress of Troppau it was decided between some of the biggest countries in Europe that the uprising would be stopped at the King of Naples would be restored, for this to happen there were various steps. The entire operation was master minded by the Austrians. The Austrian troops marched into Naples and suppressed the uprising with the backing of Russia and Prussia, the suppression was very vicious and they restored King Ferdinand’s monarchy, which was very much in favour of Austrian help. During 1821 there was another uprising in Italy in Piedmont, this was the battle between Charles Albert and
It could be better for Europe, worse for Slavs or threatening to America. We try to take the past and make it into some sort of future which sometimes we blind ourselves by the obvious facts. Hitler did not want war with America, simply it screwed itself by allying with Japan who he hoped would secure the East and not attack America. This backfired just like his so called "secure" alliance with Italy which sometimes turned into more of a resource hog then a help (excl. Italian help on the Eastern Front).
In 1815 Italy was the country marked by the centuries of plundering attacks by foreign states, and then, in XVIII and early XIX century, by French and Austrian infulences. There was a long way separating the divided Italian states from unification of 1871. What citizens of those states needed were the strong political figures that would lead them to the consolidation. I'd like to concetrate on two of them - Giuseppe Garibaldi and Camillo Cavour. Two marginally different personalities, two different ideas of how should the future of Italy look like, and, therefore, different ways they followed to make those ideas come true.
Who were the major players in the Spanish Civil War and how did they affect its course and outcome? For the first time in Spain’s history, 1931 marked the year that changed the country into an orderly democratic republic. The exile of King Alfonso XIII in 1931 because of the loss in support from the Spanish people only highlighted that the monarchy was doomed. Therefore, the Second Spanish Republic ruled from 1931 until 1937 and was under the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera whose main aims was to modernize Spain through liberal, democratic means. Although, the development of change already faced opposition from right-winged supporters, including rich landowners who feared social changes that the Republic would try to implement.
The fact that Austria had influenced Italy so much before the revolutions contributed hugely to the failure of the revoltutions. After the Vienna conference in 1815 Austria was granted a lot of power in Italy, this gave them an incentive to stop the revolutions as their authority would be threatened and they would lose out on a lot of things like trade. Mettinich, the chancellor of Italy said that ‘Italian affairs do not exist’ which shows his determination to stopping Italian nationalists. An example of Austrians intervention was in Naples where after being asked for help from Ferdinand I, Mettinich sent Austrian troops in to restore order. Similarly, in Piedmont in 1821, where Charles Felix declared Charles Albert (the temporary monarch of Piedmont) a rebel and so exiled him to Tuscany and then appealed to Mettinich for help.
Long running weaknesses within the original political system aided in developing support for Mussolini, along with his ability to change the party’s policies to accommodate all members of society. Although the war was important in allowing this rise in support for the PNF, it was not the only factor which played a part. After the land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London did not materialise, many Italians felt that their victory was one which had been ‘mutilated’. Orlando, Italy’s Prime Minister had failed to fight for the promised land during the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference, leaving Italy bitter towards its own government. Prominent socialist at the time D’Annunzio led some 2000 soldiers into the city of Fiume in defiance of the Italian Government.