Understanding the Impact of Aquired Brain Injury

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NVQ2 unit 4222-256 Understand the impact of Acquired Brain Injury on individuals The complexity of the human brain means that the severity of effects of an injury can vary according to the extent and location of the damage. Brain injury can affect all aspects of personality and behaviour and as humans are all unique there is no way of knowing how an acquired brain injury will affect an individual person. The brain consists of a cerebral cortex containing areas which control different activities. Damage to a particular area can affect that activity. Strokes tend to affect a specific area of the brain, whereas a head injury due to a road accident usually involves more general damage. The main effects of brain injury can be grouped into three areas; Physical – affecting how the body works. Fatigue -ordinary tasks take much more effort and more rest is needed. Mobility – movement can become slow and balance and co-ordination can be affected. Sensory impairment – Sensation of touch on the skin may be reduced, lost or exaggerated. Eyesight may be affected. Taste or smell may be impaired or lost. Difficulties with speech – Speech may be slow, indistinct or rapid and hard to understand. Words may be repeated or speech may be lost. Epilepsy – Brain injury can make people prone to seizures. This could affect the ability to drive or operate machinery. Spasticity – limbs may be stiff or weak with a reduced range of movement and pain. Paralysis – or weakness could affect one side of the body more than the other making tasks like getting dressed difficult. Continence may also be affected. Ataxia – irregular, uncontrollable tremors affecting co-ordination of movements can make it difficult to write. Hands may shake and the person may become clumsy. Hormonal imbalances – damage to the hypothalamus or the pituitary glands can lead to insufficient or increased
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