CHE 326 Experiment 2 Nitration of Methyl Benzoate I. PRE-LAB (please complete before coming to lab, should be typed, 1 page limit) [pic] A. Table of Reagents (fill in all the blanks as described in the instructions). |Compound |Mol. Weight |mmol |amount |melting point |density |Ref. | | | | |(in g or mL) | | | | |methyl benzoate | | | | | | | |nitric acid | | | | | | | |sulfuric acid | | | | | | | |methanol | | | | | | | |methyl 3-nitrobenzoate | | | | | | | B. References (provide references for the information you've given in the table of reagents) C. Safety (are any of the reagents used toxic or hazardous?
Over the years, scientists have gathered evidence through single displacement reactions to test the reactivity of many metals and non-metals, and have generated a list of these elements in order of most reactive to least reactive. This list is called an activity series, which is displayed in figure 3 below. In order for one to recognize if an element has been replaced with another element, a chemical change must occur. Evidence of a chemical reaction falls into four categories: change in color, change in odour, formation of gas or solid and the release or absorption of heat. A circumstance without any of the evidences present concludes that a chemical reaction has not occurred and thus a displacement reaction has not taken place.
The molar mass of a compound or atom is the mass of 1 mole of anything; this is relative to the atomic mass from the periodic table. The percentage yield from an experiment would be the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield multiplied by 100. We need to know how to balance chemical equations due to law of conservation of mass. Being able to turn moles into mass and mass into moles through the equation “m=nM” rearranged to find out other components. We need to be able to find the limiting reagent and be able to go through the process of gravimetric stoichiometry.
Then, after that we were to determine the density of the same copper cylinder by using the volume found by the water displacement method. Finally, we were attempting to identify three different unknown liquids by density determinations. Knowing the density of a certain material can be very vital to a scientist because density is used in many different ways in a chemistry lab. Undoubtedly the most important use of density is the ability to determine an unknown substances identity. Since every material has a unique density a scientist can simply calculate the mass and volume of an object, find the unknown object’s density and he will, without a doubt, have correctly identified the substance.
Nathan Bahn Beer’s Law Study Lab Introduction: In this lab, we used a spectrometer to observe the transmittance of light at a certain wave length. We experimented to see if the molarity of a solution changes the transmittance of light and the absorbance of that light by the solution. By observing the percent transmittance and the amount of light absorbed, we can calculate the amount of color absorbing components in the solution. Through this process is how we are able to discover the amount of copper in the solution. Experimental Procedure: 250 mL of the copper solution was made by creating 100 mL of the solution, reacting CuO with HNO3, and then diluting to the mark of 250 mL.
You will be doing two different labs. The first, Water Conductance, will be to learn how to use a conductivity meter and determine the concentration of an unknown solution. The second, Salt Content, is to determine the salinity of a water sample. You will write your one report on the two methods to determine the salinity content in solutions. Water Conductance & Salt Content 100 points Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to determine the conductance and the total salt content of unknown sample.
Experiment and Observation: Please note that this procedure was adapted from the “Anions, Cations, and Ionic Reactions” LabPaq Lab manual (Hands-On Labs Version 42-0304-82-00-01, 2015) Please reference this manual for further information on the lab experiments. The first experiment was to perform a qualitative anion test. This was done by observation of chemical reactions and recording the results in Data Table 1. Using the information from the reactions we were able to identify unknown substances and recorded the results in Data Table 1. Data Table 1: Anion Confirmation Tests Chemical | Anion | Addition of AgNO3 | Addition of HCl | NaBr | Bromide | Cloudy white thin solution | Clear with sedimentation | Na2CO3 | Carbonate | Clear with white sedimentation | Bubbles, sedimentation combined to one formation | NaCl | Chloride | Milky white, white sedimentation | No visible change | Nal | Iodide | Pale green cloudy, sedimentation | Sedimentation dispersed to smaller pieces, solution clears in color | Na2SO4 | Sulfate | No visible changes noted | Milky white | Na2S | Sulfide | Clear with amber sedimentation | No visible Change noted | Unknown #103 | CarbonateNa2CO3 | Cloudy white thin solution | Bubbles, Sedimentation combined to one
The purpose of the following experimentation was to use two intensive physical properties, specific heat and linear thermal expansion, to determine if a sample of an unknown metal was Zinc. Throughout the course of experimentation, data from the unknown metal was compared to values from the known metal. The ultimate goal of the experiment was to use this data to identify the unknown metal. But in order to find these values, two experiments were conducted. The first of the two experiments was based in calorimetry.
| Gravimetric Determination Nickel in Steel | | 10/15/2013 Fall 2013 | | Objective The purpose of the laboratory is to determine the percentage of nickel (Ni) in the steel alloy. Introduction There are numerous types of steel alloys with different chemical compositions and weights. Some steels are simple in composition, like a steel with 99% iron (Fe) and only 1% carbon (C). However, there are other steels that vary greatly in composition. For the laboratory an unknown steel was used and the nickel content was determined using a gravimetric method and by exploiting the chemical properties of the compounds and solutions.
Recrystallization of the Benzoic Acid Antonio Roki CHE 311L: Organic Chemistry I Section #2 September 14, 2012 Recrystallization of the Benzoic Acid Summary: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the process of the Recrystallization is the good method of purification of the solid substance based on its different solubility values. This experiment conducted the purification of the Benzoic acid. The melting point range of the impure Benzoic acid was determined to be 86- 108 °C. Melting point was measured one more time after the process of the purification and was determined to be 111-117 °C. The melting point ranges of the impure and pure benzoic acid seemed reasonable.