Typography is a visual form of communication. Throughout history typography has been used whether early peoples realized it or not. In history, there are forms that predate what is classified as typography, but considered as a development of early typography. The start of typography begins with the invention of writing, of course. The invention of writing then transitions into the invention of moveable type in Europe. Next came the long era of the hand press and handset metal types. Then, the Industrial Revolution provided technological innovations with an outburst of new typographic forms. Type then became an aesthetic within modernism, the need for communication, and also progress in technology. Type has lastly been used greatly in the digital revolution.
Typographic Anatomy Summary
Typography has evolved from handwriting. The fundamental element of constructing a letterform is the linear stroke. There are various components of individual letterforms that identify the forms overall. Understanding the vocabulary within typography helps designers and typographers with visual harmony and the complexity of the alphabet. There are imaginary lines in which letterforms are set. Each letter rests on a baseline, has a cap line which runs along the top of capital letters, a beard line which runs along the bottom of descenders, the mean line which establishes the height of lowercase letters and the x-height which is the distance from the baseline to the mean line. The proportions of individual letterforms are important to consider in typography. There are four major variables to control which are stoke to height ratio, contrast in stroke weight, expanded and condensed styles, and x-height and proportion. A font is a set of characters of the same size and style containing all the letters in the alphabet and sometimes more. Unity in the design of a font is important to make the typeface successful. There are six classifications within typefaces...