Type 2 Diabetes Essay

647 WordsMay 13, 20133 Pages
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus A 55-year-old female patient has had Type 2 DM for 20 years and she has questions about diet control of her blood sugars. She states that she does not eat “sugar” but reports that after eating she notes that her blood sugars elevate dramatically. Discuss how you would explain to the patient the reason for her post prandial blood sugar spikes even if she does not eat “sugar” at each meal. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes affecting many Americans. It can develop due to obesity, genetics, illness, trauma, or myocardial infarction (Terry & Weaver, 2011). In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary in order for the body to use glucose for energy. After food intake, the body breaks down sugars and starches into glucose. Insulin is then secreted in response to the rising glucose levels (Porth, 2008). In addition, insulin also helps the body store fat and protein. If the body does not produce enough insulin to accommodate the amount of glucose in the blood, the glucose then builds up in the blood which can lead to complications. How Our Bodies Convert Food into Glucose Once in the stomach, food that we eat is mixed with acids and enzymes. Carbohydrates, which are made out of simple sugars, are broken down into glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the glucose is either stored or immediately used for energy (Lewis, Heitkemper, & Dirksen, 2010). Protein on the other hand, is made up of amino acids. Protein is converted to glucose through a process known as gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, the liver synthesizes glucose from amino acids, glycerol, and lactic acid. This glucose may be released directly into the

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