The Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSUS) was a clinical study based in Tuskegee, Alabama by the U.S Public Health Service. The main purpose of the testing was to “study the course of syphilis in blacks and to compare the course of the disease against a study on syphilis in whites.” (Pg 39; 2) There was a major problem with this study and the way it was conducted. There were many ethical question raised as to whether the effects of syphilis on black males was worthy of study. The main issue raised was that the subjects tested weren’t told what they were being tested for. Instead, they were “told they that were being tested for bad blood, a Southern catchphrase for a variety of illnesses.
(2005). Plan Points Physicians Toward Best Practices in Prescribing. Psychiatric News, Vol. 40 (5). Retrieved June 13, 2008 from http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/ful/40/5/22?maxtoshow=40&hits=40 |Mental health practitioners and advocates |Suggest guidelines and algorithms |Michigan |March 4, 2005 |Prescription and monitoring of drugs for clients with major depression |Project called Michigan Mental Health Evidence-Based Practice Initiative |Guidelines and algorithms recommendation to adopt Texas Implementation of Medication Algorithms |No follow-up of the presented proposal | |U.S.
COMPARTMENT SYNDROME 1 Compartment Syndrome Shannin Daniels ENGL 135 Professor Erikson August 18, 2010 COMPARTMENT 2 Compartment syndrome is a devastating side effect of orthopedic injuries, crush injuries and trauma. The injury at the cellular level is amazing. What the muscle goes through following one of these injuries is complex. Having a diagnosis quickly can mean the difference between surgery to relieve pressure to amputation. The trauma of surgery followed by probable skin grafting can be devastating also.
A European physician, Professor A Weichselbaum, discovered the cause of the mysterious cerebro-spinal meningitis illness in 1887 and Penicillin was the first antibiotic used to fight the disease. In 1978 the first vaccine was created and mass vaccinations during that year caused a substantial decline in the number of meningitis outbreaks (Fredericks, n.d.). There are three main types of meningococcal disease serogroups: B, C, and Y. Worldwide there are also A and W-135. USA vaccines cover A, C, W-135, and Y but not B (Coffee, 2015).
Vaccination Timeline: 1976 First Vaccination for smallpox but was a dead end. After development of the knowledge of treatment (through Pasteur’s germ theory) and other honourable mentions there was a vaccination made against: Typhoid 1896 Tuberculosis 1906 Diphtheria 1913 Tetanus 1927 Whooping Cough 1952 Polio 1954 Measles 1964 MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) 1988 Work of Domagk: In 1932 the second Magic Bullet was found when Gerhard Domagk discovered that one particular red dye was effective against some cases of blood poisoning. From this red dye Gerhard developed the drug Prontosil. The drug could save many lives because at the time many people became infected and died from simple cuts and bruises. Research shows that the key ingredient in Pronotsil was sulphonamide.
Immune System Disorders Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) Lupus is a disease that leads to long-term inflammation of the particular tissue. It is an autoimmune system disorder in which the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. It can damage healthy tissue of the skin, joint, kidneys, brain, and other organs. It’s underlying cause is not fully known but may also be caused by certain drugs. SLE is more common in women than men and can occur at any age but often most seen in people ages 10-50.
Now retired "Clemson University organic chemist John H. Huffman, a leading scientist in synthetic cannibinoid development, made more than 450 cannibinoid compounds to help advance the treatment of serious ailments like multiple sclerosis, AIDS, and cancer" (Griep, 2013). In an interview with ABC News, Huffman explains that his research apparently fell into the wrong hands, but "doubts that a ban on the substances will keep kids away from it". Organic marijuana has been illegal since 1937, he points out, yet many have completely disregarded those laws. Therefore, prohibition of spice could have a similar outcome. Huffman contrasts the two substances, describing the effects of synthetic cannabinoids as " anecdotal, and comes from things like visits to emergency rooms."
In 1997, autopsies of people who died of the Spanish Flu in the early 1900’s, appear to have a strain of H1N1 traced in their bodies. This means that H1N1 could have occurred along the side with the Spanish Flu of 1918 and possibly aid in the killing of its victims. The second similarity between the Spanish Flu of 1918 and H1N1 is that both influenza first occurred in the Springtime. Since the Spanish Flu of 1918 appeared out of nowhere, and the lack of medical treatment, the amount of deaths may be higher in the Spanish Flu because of this. In conclusion, there are many similarities and differences between the Spanish Flu of 1918 and the H1N1 pandemics.
His first experiment was on the diseases syphilis. Syphilis could be spread through sexual contact. In 1905 Prussian scientist Fritz Schaudinn identified syphilis is caused by protozoa. The hard work of Paul Enrlich and Gerhard Domagk discovered a red dye called Prontosil which has a compound called sulphanilamide was effective against syphilis protozoa and later discovered related compounds called sulpha drugs. Alexander Fleming was sick of the way World War wounds were treated.
African American Life in History Segregation in the world of Medicine helped to produce the Tuskegee Syphilis study. The study is an example of that segregation towards African Americans during the early to mid 1900s. As a result of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, many African Americans lost their lives due to the misconduct of doctors. To this date African American will not participate in clinical trials, due to the outcome of the Tuskegee Syphilis study. Dr. Vanessa Northington Gamble, a physician and, medical historian, also the author of the Tuskegee Lesson, spent time speaking with Mr. Herman Shaw one of the survivors of the study.