Big Ideas in Science from Methods to Mutation SC300 Unit 4 Submitted by: Date: September 11th 2012 1. What patterns do you see in the distribution of earthquakes across the continental United States? When conducting research on the earthquake patterns across the United States, it becomes obvious that the majority of the earthquake activity in the continental U.S. centers on the western coastal region which includes California, Oregon, and Washington as well as the Alaskan western coastal region. This area is, according to geological scientists, one of the most active regions for earthquakes in the world as it is an area where the tectonic plates of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate
Sea floor spreading forms the best evidence for continental drift. Critically discuss this statement. There is lots of evidence to support the theory of continental drift, including Harry Hess’s discovery of sea floor spreading theory. By using sonar, Hess found that oceans were shallower in the middle, allowing him to identify Mid Ocean Ridges. He suggested that at the centre of oceans, molten material would rise from the Earth’s mantle, causing new sea floor to be created, pushing the ocean floor.
At last for conservations margins, the tension build up when plate are grinding past each other get stuck. Afterwards the plate will finally jerk past each other and sending out shock waves which is vibrations which is earthquakes. They both create lots of impact. For examples for the volcano eruption in Montserrat which is a LEDC, it cause 19
Plate Tectonics Press Release Assignment Geology/101 An earthquake is the shaking of the ground cause by an abrupt shift of rock along a fracture in the Earth, called a fault. An earthquake is caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse buildings and bridges; disrupt gas, electric, and phone services; and sometimes trigger landslides, avalanches, flash floods, fires, and huge, destructive ocean waves (tsunamis) (www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/facts). So the question that everyone wants to know is why does the planet move when the plates move? The planet moves whenever the two plates get tangled together.
As heat rises and cools it forces the plates in different directions; either sliding past one another, away or towards each other. At a constructive plate margin the plates are moving away from one another, this process is also known as sea-floor spreading and an example of a constructive margin is where the Eurasian plate meets the North-American plate. The Ring of Fire is the name for a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that result at destructive boundaries where the denser oceanic plate is subducted beneath a continental plate, to form an oceanic trench. At conservative margins the plates slide sideways past each other, either in the same direction or in opposite directions. A natural hazard is a natural event that has the ability to adversely affect people and their property.
Hurricane Sandy hit New York on 29th October 2012. Causes of the hurricane include the water in the Atlantic Ocean was 3 degrees hotter than normal. This is due to climatic change; the extra heat in the water was a major cause of the hurricanes formation. Warm water is vital in the formation; the water helped intensify the storm and enabled it to produce more rain. Another factor includes the rising sea levels; these enabled the storm to be much more damaging storm surge than before.
I shall use examples of the Kobe Earthquake 1995, Boxing Day Tsunami 2004 and the Haiti Earthquake 2010. The earthquake of 2004 was caused by subduction of the Australian plate and the Eurasian Plate ,a 15-20m slip occurred along the fault line which then caused an earthquake measuring a 9.1 on the Richter scale. This a very high recording on the Richter scale so therefore it would always cause devastating hazards , but human factors could be seen as making the impacts far worse. The earthquake in the ocean had caused a tsunami to occur within the Indian Ocean. The wave reached up to 30 metres high causing devastation to the 13 countries surrounding the ocean.
Both natural and human factors contributed to transforming the hazard into a disaster. Looking at the natural factors of the disaster, the source of the tsunami wave can be attributed to two tectonic plates: The North-South running Indo-Australian tectonic plate and the Eurasian tectonic plate. (Forrest 2005, p. 12) When the two plates shifted “about twenty miles below the surface of the sea,”(Forrest 2005, p. 12) they set off a “one-thousand mile long rupture” which subsequently released the energy equivalent of a 250-megaton bomb.’ (Forrest 2005, p. 12) However the magnitude of the destruction cannot solely be blamed on the tsunami wave. The natural propensity of human’s to build and inhabit low-lying areas near coastlines also contributed to the scale of the disaster. With such a large number
It is assumed that these subsidence events are likely cause by loading, as by the erosion of the sevier orogeny, basement rock being faulted, and regional dynamic topographic trends. It looks further into the regional differences in isostasy compared to their study area ( WY , Utah, CO) and the more eastern reaches of the seaway. The great transgressions of the Late Cretaceous http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/content/136/2/175.short This article outlines the great transgression of the western interior seaway. These regressions should result in large uniform sequences correlating samples from the western edge of the sea way to the eastern edge. Thee transgression, if associated with the warmer climates, we will also result in high precipitation rates, increasing the productivity off the rivers, and correlating the gravel movement, and erosion rate of the sevier, and adding to sediment
The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by an earthquake that is thought to have had the energy of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs. The epicenter of the 9.0 magnitude quake was under the Indian Ocean near the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The violent movement of sections of the Earth’s crusts known as tectonic plates displaced an enormous amount of water, sending powerful shock waves in every direction. The tectonic plates in this area had been pushing against each other, building pressure for thousands of years – they continue to do so and will likely cause underwater earthquakes and tsunamis in the future. The shifting of the earth’s plates in the Indian Ocean on Dec. 26, 2004 caused a rupture more than 600 miles long, displacing the seafloor above the rupture by perhaps 10 yards horizontally and several yards vertically.