The Osmoregulatory Abilities of Two Intertidal Worms, Nereis virens and Phascolopsis gouldii Author’s Name: ___________________________________________________ Biology Department, Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 Nereis virens, clam worms, are common marine annelids, which are widespread in the intertidal zone of many beaches in New England. They are particularly abundant in the upper intertidal zone (Fig. 1), where specimens may be found under rocks and in beds of mussels and algae. Phascolopsis gouldii, peanut worms, are another common worm native to the New England coast. They can often be found buried in silty or muddy areas in the lower parts of the intertidal zone (Fig.
A similar discovery was made of a whole ecosystem of invertebrates surviving from chemoautotrophic bacteria in a cave that had been completely sealed from the outside world for more than a million years (Sarbu et al. 1996). The surprising discoveries warped science’s perceptions of the boundaries of life’s existence. After many drill sites found uncontaminated samples of microbes in numbers equivalent to surface populations, hundreds of metres under the ocean floor, the hypothesis of a deep prokaryotic biosphere seemed likely reality (Petersen 2005). The implications of this biosphere are potentially as vast as the biosphere itself.
The specks of material floating around make it vulnerable to fish to consume. Most often, plastic is mistaken for food by albatrosses and sea turtles. That is a form a pollution, starting right at the heart of the sea
What I find peculiar about the bull shark is its ability to live in both marine habitats and freshwater habitats. In general, being able to survive in both habitats is very uncommon for sharks. Aquatic organisms rely heavily on a process called osmoregulation that allows them to achieve homeostasis of water content within their body. Without going into too much detail on the specifics of osmosis and osmotic pressure, this process allows the organism to keep their internal fluids from getting too diluted or too concentrated. So you may be asking yourself, how does this apply to the bull shark?
They are coral mining, climate, diseases, tourism, blast fishing, farm runoff, sewage, oil and industrial pollution. Vacationers feel privileged to be able to deep sea dive and get a firsthand look at the incredible biodiversity that the reefs provide. They are unaware of the fact that just by touching the fragile coral, as shown in the photograph; they are damaging its delicate tissue. The coral reefs provide homes for many varieties of plant and animals. Many different kinds of fish live in the reefs as their haven for feeding, reproduction, and safety from predators.
WHAT ARE CORAL REEFS Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Corals are colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps are like tiny sea anemones, to which they are closely related. But unlike sea anemones, coral polyps secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons which support and protect their bodies.
Turtles are reptiles of the order Chelonii or Testudines characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.  Turtle may refer to the chelonian order as a whole (American English) or to fresh-water and sea-dwelling chelonians (British English).  The order Chelonii or Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. The earliest known turtles date from 220 million years ago, making turtles one of the oldest reptile groups and a more ancient group than lizards, snakes or crocodiles. Of the many species alive today, some are highly endangered.
Many don’t realize that they provide humans with a source of income and more importantly, life for a wide diversity of marine animals. By 2050, there is a possibility that the coral reefs might die out if their habitats continue to worsen (Trinh, 2012). This paper reviews information on what coral reefs are, the importance of coral reefs, information on the Florida Keys and Caribbean, explains the problems they face, and how coral reefs can be helped. INTRODUCTION Coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems, provide life to a variety of marine animals (Coral Reef Protection, 2012). Reefs have been called the “rainforests of the sea,” because they provide homes to numerous marine animals (Trinh, 2012).
A process called mass bleaching has also become a danger to coral reefs. Mass bleaching happens when water temperatures rise to unusual levels, which then causes the coral to release colorful microscopic algae that usually provide the coral polyps with food. This process affects plankton and other small organisms, which in turn affects the fish that typically feed on such organisms. The affect of climate change on coral reefs is only one prime example of how climate change can affect marine life. Phytoplankton populations have also been affected by the warming temperatures in the ocean.
Olive Ridleys get their name from the coloring of their heart-shaped shell, which starts out gray but becomes olive green once the turtles are adult. Hatchlings are dark gray with a pale yolk scar, but appear all black when wet. Carapace length ranges from 37 to 50 mm. Olive Ridleys are omnivorous, meaning that they consume a varied diet from both plant and animal sources. Distribution Although Olive Ridleys spend time in the open ocean, they also forage in coastal waters and estuaries.Olive Ridley turtles are found only in warmer waters, including the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans.