The same process that brought globalisation of legitimate activities has also brought the spread of transnational organised crime. Globalisation creates new opportunities for crime and new means of committing crime, for example cyber crime. Manuel Castells (1998) argues because of globalisation there is a globalised criminal economy worth £1 trillion. This takes a number of forms such as arms trafficking, trafficking in nuclear materials, smuggling of illegal immigrants, trafficking in women and children, sex tourism, trafficking in body parts, cyber-crimes, green crimes, international terrorism, smuggling of legal goods, trafficking in cultural artefacts, trafficking in endangered species, the drugs trade and money laundering. The global criminal economy has both a demand and supply side.
1. Discuss the underlying reasons for the rapid growth of crime laboratories in the United States since the late 1960s. The increase in violent crimes has produced more increasing amounts of physical evidence that is being recovered from crime scenes. Technology has also become more advanced within crime lab technology to meet the needs such as DNA evidence and the need to preform chemical analysis on drugs that are also widely being used today. 2.
The civil rights movement emphasized equality of opportunity and respect for individuals regardless of race, color, creed, gender or personal attributes. This period also saw a dramatic increase in reported crime and the development of many theories to explain this leap in observed criminality. In the mid-1980s, a dramatic increase in the sale and use of illicit drugs also contributed to increased crime and led to the “war on drugs.” By the 1990s, there was a growing emphasis on individual accountability and a “get tough on crime” attitude. The events of September 11, 2001 led to a more proactive posture and more global approach in the fight against terrorism. Corporate and white collar crime became seen as a serious threat to the American way of life and contributed to an increased emphsis on holding business executives accountable for their
One can argue the issue of racism in America is emphasized to be the cause for more violence and eventually more crime rates increase. Many offenders are more
Technological innovation is one example of globalisation, and is also pointed out in Item A, and involves the introduction of new technologies, such as mobile phones which have now become so advanced that they have been compared to actual people. With this rise in technology there are negative impacts on the rate of crime, in that it has risen dramatically. This is due to the new levels of crime that can be produced with technology, and an example of this is fraud. However, as Tombs and Whyte (2003) state, corporate crimes are rarely considered newsworthy and therefore are not reported, showing that corporate crime is a lot more widespread than people actually see it to be, and supports the view that because of globalisation, newer types of crimes are being committed. Another example of this could be fiddling expenses.
Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery and is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world (Human Trafficking into and within the united States: A Review of the Literature, 2013). The human trafficking it consists of recruitment, transporting, harboring or kidnapping of persons by means of threat, force, coercion abduction, or deception for the purposes of exploitation. This exploitation consist of, at a minimum of, prostitution of others forced labor or services, slavery or forms of, and the possible removal and selling of human organs (Human Trafficking into and within the united States: A Review of the Literature, 2013). The traffickers most often transport individuals to unfamiliar
Drug trafficking is a global illicit trade involving the civilization, manufactures, distributions and sales of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws (UNODC intro). This has become a growing problem in the world today; most people think it is a fast and easy way to make money, but not paying attention to the consequences that come along with the situation. Money serves as a major factor in the war on drugs. The money that results from drug trafficking seems a primary reason why controlling illegal drugs, or banning them in that case, poses as a difficult task. There are many risks when it comes to dealing drugs, no matter what kind of drug you are selling you are liable to end up in jail right along with the murders, and the rapist (Jake, 2006).
For instance, the majority of sexual, and sometimes violent, imagery of women in the media has been suggested to play a role in increasing rates of sexual assault. The frequency of images of male aggression and female sexuality in the media has been seen as another potential cause of sexual assault. These cultural explanations have been proposed to add to the effects of the issues. In the past 30 years, the awareness of sexual assault has grown. Research specifically directed toward sexual assault on university and college campuses has increased, and the public has been more informed on the issue.
Abstract Over the past fifteen years leaders continue to explore the policy process and decision-making issues in criminal justice. A policy is the result of various decisions. The purpose of criminal justice policies is to provide society protection from unlawful acts and decrease criminal act. These decisions are made by key participants that influence congressional mandates. One of the most important policy shifts over the past eight years is the dramatic increase in the policies that address crime and criminal justice.