Traumatic Brain Injury Essay

4835 Words20 Pages
Assignment 2 It is estimated that in South Africa, up to ninety thousand new cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) occur every year (Net Care, 2010). However, it is important to consider that every individual case is unique and that there are a vast number of factors that will determine the consequences and recovery of each patient. This essay will discuss the different types of TBI as well as address the consequences and factors involved in recovery. In particular childhood TBI will be discussed in relation to appropriate development as well as addressing the unique difficulties experienced by children with TBI. The knowledge gained from this theory will then be applied to the Case Study of Neo. There are two types of Traumatic brain injury, namely, open head injuries (OHI) and closed head injuries (CHI). Open head injuries occur when the skull is either penetrated or a fragment of the skull penetrates the brain due to an impact with the skull. In this form of injury the patient does not normally lose consciousness. Damage to the brain is focal and as a result specific symptoms are experienced in relation to the part of the brain that is damaged directly. This also results in a faster recovery (Tutorial 103, TBI). Conversely, closed head injuries tend to cause focal as well as diffuse damage to the brain. This form of injury occurs through an impact or a blow to the head, which causes a sudden movement of the brain inside the skull (Tutorial 103, TBI). This mechanism of damage is described as an acceleration-deceleration injury. Focal damage is caused by the impact of the brain with the inside of the skull, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes, either at the site of impact (coup injury) or on the opposite side (centrecoup injury) (Grafman & Salazar, 1987 as cited in Banich, 2004). Diffuse damage is caused by the twisting and shearing of neurons.
Open Document