Transplantation Essay

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Student ID: 7642869 1. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCES THE NUMBER OF POTENTIAL DONORS The factors that may influence the number of potential donors for Fred are as follows: • Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy – a surgical method that has increased the rate of living donations as it involves minimal scarring and quicker convalescence • Grafts with anatomical anomalies – A potential donor who has a good immunological correspondence with the recipient, but has an abnormal kidney, could transplant the defective one leaving the donor with the best one. • Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin: A therapy where harmful antibodies that fight foreign tissue is removed. Intravenous Immunoglobulin is administered after each therapy to prevent the antibodies coming back. This process is called desensitization. These protocols can increase the paired kidney exchange, which in turn augments donors who are incompatible with the intended recipients. These methods can increase the rate of live kidney donors for Fred, though the plasmapheresis process is still under clinical investigation. The below figure indicates the treatments that could increase the rate of living donors for Fred. TREATMENT ALGORITHM FOR SENSITIZED PATIENTS WITH LIVING DONORS. Reference: Cynthia L. Russell et al.(2009). Defining high risk in adult kidney transplantation. Progress in Transplantation. Vol 19, No. 3. 2. LABORATORY TESTS DONE PRIOR TO KIDNEY TRANSPLANT Diagnostic tests that are carried out in donors and recipient before transplantation involves Tissue typing or crossmatching is done prior to transplantation to evaluate donor-recipient compatibility for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and ABO blood group. These tests include the following: • The ABO blood group compatibility is tested first because contraindication between the blood groups results in rapid rejection. Here are the blood

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