Functionalism studied the psychological processes which enable individuals to be able to adapt to their environments; each psychological process has an important role which is their main point of focus. William James, who is one of the founders of functionalism, felt that in order to study psychology, it had to come from multiple sources, through introspection, experimentation, the study of children, the
In the 1950s’ Rogers called his approach client-centred and later in the1960s person-centred-therapy because of its focus on the client's individual view of the world and their needs were put at the centre. His ideas culminated in his necessary and sufficient conditions writings in 1957 and 1969. During the 1980’s and 1990’s his approach was broadened to education, industry, groups and conflict resolution. Many others have contributed and developed PCT, Natalie Rogers, Carl Rogers’ daughter, developed “person-centred expressive therapy” which engages clients and group members in the creative arts, Eugene Gendlin developed “focusing oriented”, “experiential psychotherapy “ to help clients tune in to their “inner experiencing” in greater depth, Gary Prouty’s “pre-therapy" uses PCT principles e.g. acceptance, non-judgemental and a non-directive approach.
Process Report of a Client Centred Therapy Session Reflection and Literature Review Gina Enache-Raw PS 4002 - Humanistic Approach and Skills Abstract The purpose of this process report is to critically evaluate my sensitivity within the counselling process and to assess my awareness of what was occurring within the therapy as this allows me to explore areas that have potential for further development and to increase my understanding of a humanistic framework. I will attempt to inform the reader about my interactions with the client and explain how I have made sense of the therapeutic process and what I have learned from the experience. One of the main reasons for choosing this particular session was because I have previously worked with the client and there were certain issues worth exploring from both, mine and client’s perspective. For example, as the reader will see from the excerpt the client spoke about issues within her family and I have considered this to be of a particular interest from both personal and multi-cultural perspectives. Process Report of a Client Centred Therapy Session Reflection and Literature Review "It is that the individual has within himself or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering his or her self-concept, attitudes and self-directed behavior - and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided."
Therefore reflection can be a key skill to learn and a way of developing working practice which is anti-oppressive as well as empowering for service users. As part of the GSCC (2004) requirements it states that social workers need to use… ..’reflection and critical analysis to continuously develop an improve their specialist practice, including their practice in inter-agency contexts, drawing systematically, accurately and appropriately on theories, models and up to date research.’ (GSCC, 2004, pg16) According to Payne (2005), the work of Schon (1983, 1987), in exploring how professionals utilized their knowledge in working with people, first gave rise to the importance of reflective thinking for professional practice. Dewey (1991) and Jasper (2003) suggest that reflection is a deliberate and cognitive process which incorporates a gradual self awareness, transformation and critical appraisal of the social world. Taylor (2000) defines reflection as... ‘…the throwing back of thoughts and memories... (Taylor, 2000, pg3) ..Thinking about them in order to make sense of them and as necessary make appropriate changes. Johns
Central to Freud's theory, and perhaps his greatest contribution to psychology, is the notion that our psyche is composed of parts within our awareness and beyond our awareness. Freud used the term psychoanalysis to label his theories and techniques for identifying and curing the mental problems of his patients. This essay will outline the main concepts that surround Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, thus showing how it can help us understand our clients presenting issues. In order for me to do this I will firstly describe the psychosexual stages in relation to personality development followed by briefly identifying some of the main criticisms. I will lastly concentrate on discussing the applications of his theory to therapy today.
Each theory correlates to a specific method of assessment. One theory is the psychodynamic theory. With this theory, the roots of your personality are your unconscious thoughts, feelings, repressed problems from early childhood, and motives. The methods to assess the psychodynamic theory you would use projective tests as well as personal interviews. The next theory is the humanistic theory which is a drive towards personal growth.
This is a necessary understanding because it brings about social change. The goal of the book is to introduce us (students) to the sociological ways of perceiving and interpreting the social world. People are social beings. We are products of our social environments. Even though we are puppets, we are also puppeteers.
I recognize the importance of all of the theories and theorists discussed, and I was able to relate to some more than others. I was able to develop my own personal, intervention theory based on cognitive and multicultural approaches to therapy. My personal intervention theory, along with the rest of the theories and concepts discussed in this course gave me insight into the world of psychotherapy and will aid me in my journey of pursuing a career with troubled youth in the future. References Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach.
CBT was first developed in 1950s where it was know as rational emotional behavioral therapy (Albert Ellis, 1995). Later in 1958, another theorist called Arnold Lazarus further developed the CBT into its full wide range. He expanded the therapy to include the physical sensation, interpersonal relationships, and the biological factors (Lazarus, A.A,
This assignment allowed me the opportunity to conceptualize and test the implications of the experience in future situations that may occur as a social worker. This assignment related to my learning about oppression, privilege and diversity because it forwarded my ability to become aware of what is taking place in to today’s