The focus of this model concerns the brain and functions and abnormal behaviors and unobservable deviant thought processes (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Environmental stressors and external pressure that may provoke dysfunction and abnormal behaviors are accounted for in the sociocultural model. The sociocultural model relates to communication, religion, and family values, and morals (Hansell & Damour,
Inappropriate moving and handling practices may result in tissue damage and contribute to ulcer formation. Once formed, pressure ulcers may prove difficult to treat and their presence may have implications on how a client may be positioned and moved and may further hinder their recovery. Many ulcers could, and should, be prevented (Disabled Living Foundation (DLF), 2001). It is therefore essential that practitioners are aware of those moving and handling techniques that may assist in the prevention of pressure ulcer formation as well as mindful of any practices that may lead to tissue damage, albeit
It is included in behavior assessment to identify if there was a problem behavior, what variables cause and effect this behavior and if so what needs to be done for said behavior to be better. During the monitoring evaluation process the behavior analyst is to oversee the ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of the selected intervention that is taken place as well as during this process they should see if the treatment has been administered, have the changes in the behavior been monitored and documented, if changes are associated with the treatment and is treated needed to be modified or maintained (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007). It is
Another assumption is that certain regions of the brain determine certain behaviors. The cerebral cortex has been found to affect our thinking and the prefrontal cortex is associated with mood and emotions. It has been supported by PET scans and MRI scans which have been used to objectively measure the changes in neuronal activity of the brain before and after psychosurgery. 1b) Describe Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (8 marks) Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) explains the body’s ability to cope with a particular stressor. ‘Stress’ refers to the psychological and physiological responses which occur when we perceive a threat and don’t have the resources to cope with it.
Of course there are many other risks to discuss and could happen when psychological research takes place. Some of these risks in some cases need to be very much evaluated, so that the individuals participating can be informed of potential risks. What can be a threat to one individual may not necessarily be a threat to the next one. Some of the many injuries can be social and physical and in some cases mental(Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, &Zechmeister, 2005). ”With the risk being small some researchers should try to minimize the threat and save the individual” (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, &Zechmeister, 2005).What needs to take place is that the researchers must utilize the procedures in place for the individuals that are involved with the research “(Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, &Zechmeister, 2005).
Instrumental conditioning, is when behavior is reinforced and is dependent on his or her behavior (Olson & Hergenahn, 2013). Classical conditioning, is when an unconditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned response and visa-versa many times, which changes behavior. Instrumental and classical cognition both can change one’s behavior, but classical conditioning helps in forming a behavior that more conductive to survival, and instrumental conditioning helps in learning to avoid certain situations, events, or effects. Cognitive expectancy is an important factor in instrumental and classical
Building on the earlier work of Thorndike, B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) began to elaborate and extend Thorndike’s ideas on learned behavior. Skinner differentiated between what he termed respondent (or reflexive) behavior, and learned (or operant) behavior. Operant behavior could be characterized by “the observable effects it has on the environment. Operant conditioning, therefore, is learning in which the probability of a response is changed by a chance in its environment (PM, n.d.).” Reinforcement and Punishment Two concepts important to an understanding of operant conditioning are reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcers and punishment are specific types of consequences.
Rather, in situations of need, people with severe learning disabilities may simply behave automatically in ways which have been successful in the past. When trying to understand the reason(s) for a child’s challenging behaviour, a medical investigation should be sought in the first instance, to check for any possible underlying health influences. Common conditions such as ear infections, tooth-ache, constipation, urinary tract infections or epilepsy may all cause, or contribute to someone’s challenging behaviour. Functional Assessment A functional assessment of the behaviour may provide some answers, or at least some theories, about the causes of an individual’s behaviour. As noted in the Challenging Behaviour Foundation’s
These triggers act as mental shortcuts to guide our attitudes and behaviour. (Cialdini, 2007; Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982) The shortcuts enable us to react immediately but sometimes the reactions may be inappropriate for the situation. Cialdini argues that these trigger features can be exploited to encourage individuals to comply with a desired response. He suggests that compliance tactics fall under six fundamental principles which can be used to direct individual’s behaviour. The six ‘weapons of influence’ are social proof, authority, likeability, commitment and consistency, scarcity and reciprocity, all of which can be useful in the workplace (Cialdini, 2007).
Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is defined as the study of psychological characteristics that often deviate outside of the norm (Cherry, 2005). This perspective generally encompasses an array of perspectives ranging from disorders to altered mental patterns that affect the normal functioning of an individual as part of society. Typically, this type of impairment is accompanied by behavior, either disruptive or of a distorted nature. There are several approaches used in abnormal psychology in addition, it is important to examine the origin of abnormal psychology in an effort to rationalize the evolution of this scientific discipline (Cherry, 2005). To understand the basis of abnormal psychology, it is essential to recognize that the individuals who make up these categories fall very far at the other end of the normal spectrum.