1) What kind of disorder is TS ?
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.
2) What causes TS?
It is not clear exactly what causes Tourette syndrome. However, researchers have found that heredity is mainly responsible for this disorders although the exact mode of inheritance is not yet known and no gene has been identified. In other cases, tics are associated with disorders other than Tourette's, a phenomenon known as tourettism.
A person with Tourette's has about a 50% chance of passing the genes to one of his or her children, but Tourette's is a condition of variable expression and incomplete penetrance. Thus, not everyone who inherits the genetic vulnerability will show symptoms; even close family members may show different severities of symptoms, or no symptoms at all. The genes may express as Tourette's, as a milder tic disorder (transient or chronic tics), or as obsessive–compulsive symptoms without tics. Only a minority of the children who inherit the genes have symptoms severe enough to require medical attention.
Other factors like infections and social environment can also play a role in making the disorder more severe. Psychological factors like stress and anxiety can also aggravate the condition. It is known, however, if these cause Tourette Syndrome as well.
3) Can both boys and girls have TS ??
Yes, Tourette syndrome is found among both boys and girls but it is three to four times more frequent among males than among females.
4) How TS diagnosed?
Tourette syndrome can be diagnosed when a person exhibits both motor and one or more vocal tics for at least 1 year with no more than three consecutive tic-free months. The existence of other neurological or psychiatric conditions can also help doctors arrive at a diagnosis. Common tics are not