The occupation of Egypt was carried out for economic and strategic reasons; however individuals were important in the timing of annexation. In 1881, Colonel Arabi, head of the nationalist movement in Egypt overthrew Turkish rule with a nationalist uprising. Britain was concerned that Arabi might close the canal to Britain, blocking the route to India and ceasing trade in Egyptian cotton which was highly sought. Therefore, then Prime Minister Gladstone decided there was no alternative option but to invade in order to protect these interests. In 1882 at the battle of Tel El Kabir British victory saw the Khedive re-installed as puppet leader under British control.
Thus, the impact of these conflicting agreements contributed to the Arab-Israeli conflict immensely. The McMahon-Hussein Correspondence, issued in October of 1915, was a series of letters between the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein Bin Ali, and British High Commissioner, Sir Henry McMahon, and it discussed the future of the Middle East’s Arab countries after the conquer of the Ottoman Empire by Great Britain. Great Britain acquired this help from the Arabic people because they believed that their chances of success would be greater if they could enlist the aid of Arabs in the revolt against Ottoman rulers. With Great Britain in support of Arab Independence, the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence gave the Arabs a portion of the Ottoman Empire as a ‘homeland’, it freed the Arabs of Turkish yoke and expelled the Turks from Arab countries. This created some issues as the Jews that were living in Palestine, the preferred home for both Arabs and Jews; it meant that the country would be under direct Arab rule.
Source 15 fully agrees with the fact that it was India’s fault that they were not achieving ‘purna swaraj.’ It states that Britain ‘ could not contemplate transfer of their present responsibilities to any system of government whose authority is directly denied by large and powerful elements in India’s national life. This statement is made by Viceroy Linlithgow, a month after the August Offer had been made, whilst in discussion with Jinnah. The August Offer highlights that there are huge amounts of division between Congress and the Muslim League. The Offer was a clear message that the Muslims would need to be accounted for. Source 17 supports this by saying, ‘the wishes and needs of the Muslim community would have to be taken into account in any settlement.’ The source shows a discussion between Linlithgow and Jinnah, concerning arrangements for the wartime administration.
USA, on the other hand, managed to gain popularity and prestige by avoiding direct nuclear confrontation with the USSR even though he made the concession to remove the Jupiters from Turkey. Overall, it was more of an open triumph for Kennedy rather than Khrushchev as he gained more prestige and trust as president and global recognition for his efforts in preserving world peace. For Krushchev, it was a triumph as he managed to force Kennedy into making concessions – the removal of the Jupiters from Turkey which were of a threat and the promise to not invade Cuba. Khrushchev’s gambit of installing missiles in Cuba was a success in forcing Kennedy into making these concessions he would not have otherwise made. He had managed to avoid direct confrontation with the USA by claiming that the Cuban missiles served as deterrence to US invasion, which was in fact a bluff.
Stalin's foreign policies contributed an enormous amount to the tensions of the Cold War. His aim, to take advantage of the military situation in post-war Europe to strengthen Russian influence, was perceived to be a threat to the Americans. Stalin was highly effective in his goal to gain territory, with victories in Poland, Romania, and Finland. To the western world, this success looked as if it were the beginning of serious Russian aggressions. The western view of the time saw Stalin as doing one of two things: either continuing the expansionist policies of the tsars, or worse, spreading communism across the world now that his one-state notion had been fulfilled.
Stalin’s view is supported by Admiral D Leahy, who in his memoirs writes ‘we had adopted an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the Dark Ages’ This quote holds a substantial amount of weight to my argument due to Admiral D Leahy’s position as Roosevelt and Truman’s chief of staff, it would be expected for a man of such status to hold a view in support of America’s actions. Nevertheless, it is apparent that while Leahy may have condoned the dropping of the bomb to shorten the war, he would make no attempt to justify his country’s and his President’s actions. The moral implications were made apparent on the British mission to Hiroshima. Not only did the bombs claim the lives of over 200,000 civilians, the
It is well known that the withdrawal of Britain from Palestine exposed Zionist forces to the invading armies of Egypt, Transjordan and other Arab nations. Traditional Zionist accounts interpret Britain’s final actions in Mandate Palestine through the lens of anti-Semitism, accusing Britain of forging a secret, sinister alliance with the Arab states to wage war on young and fragile Israel. However, analysis of English, Hebrew and Arabic documents has produced an altered, revisionist theory: Britain felt that a tiny Palestinian Arab state, undoubtedly under the influence of radical leader Hajj Amin al-Husayni, could not hope to survive on its own. Thus, British policy aimed at the incorporation of the Palestinian Arab territory into Transjordan. Issue #3 is the balance of arms in the War.
Despite this, the Marshall Aid was a success and it bolstered the armies of Europe significantly, which put Stalin in a more vulnerable position. The Truman Doctrine was the American policy in 1947 of providing economic and military aid to European Countries, primarily Greece and Turkey, because they were threatened by communism. It was the start of the containment policy to stop Soviet expansion; it was a major step in beginning the Cold War. The policy stated that countries would have a choice between Communism and Democracy. The USA sent troops and funds to countries who were accepting on the doctrine and also those who were threatened by communism.
Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, claim that the Iraq War and the overthrow of the dictator may have “helped spawn the so-called Arab Spring movement that swept across the Middle East and North Africa in nations such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya,” although most foreign-policy analysts see no evidence of that. (Nowicki) Another statement made by people who thought the advantages of the Iraq war outweigh its disadvantages is that now America finally have a strong allay other than Israel, and the invasion of Iraq help stabilize the Arabian Peninsula. One counterargument is made by Anthony Cordesman, a national-security analyst at the bipartisan Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C, that the war's cost in dollars and lives can't be justified "by saying that we have a strong partner or a meaningful strategic relationship" with Iraq — two main goals that have not been accomplished. (Fineman) And the argument of the invasion of Iraq help stabilize the Arabian Peninsula is not even worth refuting, instead of help stabilize the Arabian Peninsula, the Iraq War destroyed the balance between Iraq and Iran, and now Iran became a major threat of America in the Middle