Besides, the kingdom of Naples was established in the south and the independent kingdom of Piedmont including Sardinia lay in the north. In the centre were the dominions of the Pope. The people of the Italian provinces were not satisfied with the above decisions. Consequently, the movement for the establishment of national unity was started 6y the patriots of Italy just after the Congress of Vienna, but they could not achieve any success. As most of the provinces of Italy were under the direct control of Austria, and Chancellor Metternich was a great reactionary of his age, no progress could be made in this field.
The main reasons I will be looking at for why the revolutions failed are The Pope’s Allocution, they didn’t have a common goal, France, lack of foreign support and also the power of Austria. With the appointment of the new Pope, Pope Pius X1 in 1846, the states of Italy believed they would have a better chance of unification. Pope Pius was the first liberal pope Italy had seen and he gained support by ending censorship, telling Austrians to leave a town in the Papal States and he also released 2000 political prisoners. These actions had Metternich scared. He even quoted ‘we were prepared for anything, except a liberal Pope.
He like them formed an extreme right wing political group, the British Union of Fascists (BUF), yet the parties impact failed dramatically compared to both Hitler’s Nazi party and Mussolini’s National Fascist Party. What could be the cause of such a vast margin of success? Could it have something to do with historian ideology that fascism is alien to British traditions, hence the lack of support for Mosley’s party? Could it have had something to do with Mosley himself and his character, judgement and decision making at inappropriate or opportune times? Or was it maybe that he, and the British Union of Fascists were fighting a losing battle from the beginning, not based on the ideology of fascism being alien to British traditions but a lack of fortune in his favour, with regards to the economy and propaganda, as well as Britain’s political structure being unique compared to other Countries as both Parliament and Monarchy work together?
Both Count Camillo Cavour of Italy and Prussian Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck brought their respective nations to unify in their own respective ways. In 1852 Cavour, the Prime Minister on Piedmont, he looked onto other liberal Italian principalities. His greatest contribution was his establishment of diplomacy; the negotiations between states. Meanwhile Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck had a different view on the unification on his country; he was against diplomacy and remained scornful towards liberals. “The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood” (Bismarck).
(Robson, 1992)” However, reviewing the economical, social and political issues this was not to be. After the Unification of Italy in 1870, despite some modernisation occurring, the country still fell behind the other major powers of Europe. The state of the Italian economy was a major problem facing the new Kingdom. It was in huge debt that it had inherited from the states that had been unified to make Italy. The Liberal’s did nothing to make it look like they would attempt to transform the economy, which remained backward and unprepared for World War 1.
When Napoleon came to rule in these areas he realized it was very challenging to rule when their society and politics were so different. So, in each of these places he grouped together some of the kingdoms. Inconspicuously, he introduced Nationalism to both the Italians and Germans. The Italians realized what a great nation they could form if they belonged together. This revelation also occurred to the Confederation of the Rhine, which was the name that Napoleon gave to the newly grouped German states.
Assess the positive and negative contributions of the following to Italian Unification separatism, republicanism, foreign involvement Italian Unification was the period from 1815-71 in which Italy sought to create unite the territory in the Italian Peninsula. Italy in 1815 was described as “merely a geographical expression” by Metternich Chancellor for the Austrian Empire. The factors above all contributed and hindered the Italians plight for unification. Under Napoleon, Italy had been split into three however at the Congress of Vienna in 1814 Italy was divided into many smaller states so as to keep it weak and allow Austria to rule over it with minimal problems. However Italians such as Garibaldi, Cavour, Victor Emanuel and Mazzini sought to unify the area and create one nation.
Italy is part of the big three but was not that important because Italy's experience in World War One was disastrous and ended with the insult of her 'reward' at the Versailles Settlement in 1919. Clemenceau wanted revenge for the Franco-Prussian war that started in 1870. The main agreements of the treaty of Versailles were: · Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men. · The German army was not allowed any tanks. · Germany was not allowed an air force.
This caused a big problem for the Liberal Government because they had promised land to the public but they never received it. With the failures of democracy were contrasted with the dynamic actions of revolutionaries like D'Annunzio. There was a huge threat from left wing parties post war because the Italy Public was looking for a way to recover from the war so people were looking for an easy way out, so they looked to parties like the Socialists, the Communist. Trade Unions were another threat. While with no money and unemployment at a hight figure, there was a high chance of strikes and revolutionary activities.
This meant that Mussolini’s aim to rear a new fascist generation, and hence a completely fascist Italy, was impossible. The kind of unity behind fascism, as was seen in Germany, was made impossible by the independence Mussolini was forced to give to the Catholic Church, not just in education, but in media as well. Hence although for Mussolini it was a big success in the terms of him securing the