The railway gave Russia access to Siberia and its vast resources such as coal, oil and metal ores these were considered ‘capital goods’ and led to a 50% economic growth; However still trailing far behind the great European powers such as Austro-Hungary which had a 79% increase. However Witte increased taxes on the already financially crippled peasants further increasing their debt, as they still had to pay redemption fees alexander the ii inflicted upon them despite
* The cities grew very fast. * Russia was able to develop its’ military power because of the capital goods created were used for military development. * BUT… * There were still poor working and living conditions which led to social unrest and alternatives to Tsarism. * 80% of the Russian population still worked on the land. * Russia had improved its’ economy and its industrial production, but it still lagged behind other super powers.
Finally, the ‘Witte System’ enforced extra taxes to the over taxed peasants, creating more funds. Already Witte was making major progress for the ‘economically backward’ Russia and he would go on to make further progress, as industrialisation was finally starting to emerge in Russia, which modernised income greatly in comparison to the grain export industry that they so heavily relied on. The Witte system made continued progress for the Russian economy by the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway line, which ran 7000km across the Russia Empire, from St Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok in the East. Due to the Trans-Siberian railway, communication was vastly improved as it connected the whole of the vast size of Russia. Also, as it reached the Pacific Ocean, it meant Russia could trade with Asian countries such as China and Japan, due to shipping ports, and could reach back to St Petersburg.
Witte tried to change this with a series of projects, to help the economy and industry of Russia. He tried many different things such as building a huge railway system called the Trans-Siberian Railway across Russia (7000km). This helped Russia modernize by greatly improving infrastructure in the country. He also exploited Russia’s vast quantities of natural resources to sell them/use them in their own economy. These ideas seemed great but they did work much as Russia’s economy only grew by 50%, compared to other countries this was nothing.
How beneficial to the Russian Empire were the main economic trends between 1881 and 1905? The main economic trends were beneficial to the Russian empire to an extent as it both improved the Russian economy on a global market, but at the same time brought about problems for the working class. The Russian empire benefited from the agricultural reforms brought on by Bunge and Vyshnegradsky in 1882 as it meant that peasant could borrow money and make their landholdings more efficient. Before these reforms peasants were unable to improve their farming techniques due to the lack of finances and therefore it encouraged subsistence agriculture that would not yield any income to invest in the farms. The reforms meant that the emphasis would be on the improvement of the agriculture industry, led by the serfs (usually agricultural labourers).
Also, compared to other European countries, Russian agriculture was still backward. This is because the Great Spurt under Witte focused on industrial growth and neglected agriculture. This then brought rapid growth in population in cities as peasants moved in to work in factories. As a result, working and living conditions became extremely poor, giving people more reasons to rebel and start a revolution. Furthermore, there were also political causes for the outbreak of the 1905 revolution.
The party was led by Victor Chernov, who believed that the future of Russia not only lay with the peasantry, but the more newly developed industrial workers too - thus a main aim was to gain support of the peasantry and townspeople. The aim of the SR's was essentially to help the people a lot more by improving things such as their living conditions, and also they wanted to return all land back to peasants . Rather unsurprisingly, especially considering the peasants made up about 80% of the Russian population, the SR's were arguably the most popular party at the time in Russia. However despite those positive outlooks on the party there were a number of a weaknesses that caused divisions within
To regain the support from people, he needed to carry out the reforms in the October Manifesto. His improvements included different aspects, such as political, social and economic approaches. However these were expedients rather than real reforms. He also appointed Peter Stolypin as the prime minister to stabilize the country. Nicholas II had tried his best to regain people’s support and stop the revolution tide through the reforms after the 1905 Revolution.
How Successful was Alexander II’s emancipation of the Serfs? In 1861, the Russian Tsar Alexander II emancipated the Serfs. He felt that this change was necessary to lead Russia to become one of the major powers and remove Russia’s tag of being a very backward country. Overall, the Emancipation of the serfs was to a very large extent not successful, however there were some improvements in Russian society, most notably economically and morally. One of the key reasons Alexander II emancipated the Serfs was due to the fact that he wanted to improve the economy, which was struggling.
Lenin was responsible for the Bolsheviks growing hold on power in the years 1917-24. He was responsible for changing strategy with the April thesis and the overthrow of the provisional government. This gained him popularity and support from the Russian populous. To strengthen power he dissolved the constituent assembly in 1918. His harsh policy of war communism and the use of the checka in the years of the civil war, removed opposition to his power.