The Greeks were also receiving propaganda from the Macedonians which they believed over the Persians. The Greeks belief that the Persians were really looking out for their own interests and not what was best for Greece. The Greeks also had a great fear of severe punishment by Alexander if they revolted against him and were defeated. During this time Alexander’s army was still at war in Asia and achieving victories rather easily. Darius’s last attempt was his appeals to Alexander’s Greek allied soldiers to revolt against him or assassinate him.
The battle of Artemisium highlights Themistocles role in achieving victory for the Greeks. At Artemisium, it was Themistocles duty to send a naval fleet to attack the Persian navy, who were suspected to be sailing to Athens. this poved to be effective in the long term course of the war because it delayed the Persian fleet which meant that, “The Persians would not be able to divide their fleet and make raids against the Peloponnese for the purpose of creating divisions and seizing strategic points.”-Pamela Bradley. Furthermore if the Persians were able to launch raids in the Peloponnese this may have triggered Helot revolts as a possible alliance between them and Persia may have originated. If this were to have occurred then the Greeks alliance with the Spartans could have potentially been lost, as the Spartans may have withdrawn from the war.
Although, the development of change already faced opposition from right-winged supporters, including rich landowners who feared social changes that the Republic would try to implement. Under Generals Sanjurjo, Franco and Mola, the Spanish Civil War began as a military coup, which was aimed to put an end to the democratic political change that was seen in 1931. As seen in Italy with Mussolini in 1922 and with Hitler in Germany in 1933, one could argue that the rise of fascism subsequently kick started the demand of a takeover in Spain. But, we have to bear in mind the bad timing of 1931 to implement such a change, with the worldwide economic crisis caused by the 1929 Wall Street Crash in America, and the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, there was now fear throughout Europe of communism and revolution. Although at the beginning of the rebellion, the three main generals were not actually all in Spain.
So, how did the war start? Spartan leaders were afraid of the Athenians would use the naval forces of the Delian League to destroy their control over the Peloponnesian League. During this time, Athens was not like by many of the other city states. Though Spartans invaded the Athenian countryside and destroyed citizens' property, they continuously tired to negotiate a lasting peace term. Athens, upholding their pride, kept refusing.
Clearly this was quite a vigorous act, Cicero undertook this in full knowledge it could perhaps lead to his death as Caesar’s army, though lacking numbers, was full of war veterans. However one could call this acting against the republic, as Cicero spent more time with Pompey and his legions it was clear that the upkeep of the republic was not the motive of war but defeating Caesar was. He quarrelled with several of the more prominent Pompeian commanders over their eagerness to shed Roman blood. In Cicero’s opinion, the Pompeians had lost all sense of perspective in their lust to destroy
Long running weaknesses within the original political system aided in developing support for Mussolini, along with his ability to change the party’s policies to accommodate all members of society. Although the war was important in allowing this rise in support for the PNF, it was not the only factor which played a part. After the land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London did not materialise, many Italians felt that their victory was one which had been ‘mutilated’. Orlando, Italy’s Prime Minister had failed to fight for the promised land during the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference, leaving Italy bitter towards its own government. Prominent socialist at the time D’Annunzio led some 2000 soldiers into the city of Fiume in defiance of the Italian Government.
drive Carthage out of Sicily, and to do this, they had to have a sea fleet. Unfortunately, Sicily was at the centre of the conflict and so it was nearly ruined by the long war and in particular by the cost of great sieges. With good fortune, the Roman first army might be closed in Africa, and destroyed there like that of Regulus in the First Punic
Excerpts from Plutarch’s Life of Caesar. However, the Romans gave way before the good fortune of the man and accepted the bit, and regarding the monarchy as a respite from the evils of the civil wars, they appointed him dictator for life. This was confessedly a tyranny, since the monarchy, besides the element of irresponsibility, now took on that of permanence. 2 It was Cicero who proposed the first honours for him in the senate, and their magnitude was, after all, not too great for a man; but others added excessive honours and vied with one another in proposing them, thus rendering Caesar odious and obnoxious even to the mildest citizens because of the pretension and extravagance of what was decreed for him. 3 It is thought, too, that the
Although these traits are used to become a leader, the way one applies these traits can cause consequences. During the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades was seen as a negative factor in the Athenian cause because of his pride, and overconfidence in himself. We encounter Alcibiades arrogance in Tides of War when he says “ we will take these cities as we took the islands of our empire” this shows Alcibiades over analyzing how strong
Also, his betrayal of the plan to betray Messina denied the force a valuable base of operation and potential schemes for the taking of other cities. The Sicilian expedition also suffered from the overambitious nature of the campaign itself. Plutarch describes the grand designs of Alcibiades in creating the expedition as ludicrous - the desire to eventually take Carthage and control the Mediterranean. The war in Sicily is described by Thucydides as one of near equal magnitude to the one with the Peloponnese, which already strained Athenian power. The expedition relied on the cooperation of the Ionian cities in Sicily, which was misjudged - even Rhegium, previously an ally, did not join the Athenians.