Machiavelli Machiavelli’s The Prince is a handbook for rulers on how to run a state. Unlike previous works on this topics Machiavelli starts by describing the true nature of man. Previous works were based on an ideal model of citizens, were people are honest, loyal, law abiding, and generous. Machiavelli says that in reality “men are ungrateful, fickle, dissembling, cowardly, and jealous.” Machiavelli argues that princes must use ruling techniques that are effective given mans nature. Likewise, the prince must have qualities that are less than ideal in order to be an excellent ruler.
Machiavelli describes his book as a summary of his “understanding of the deeds of great men,” intended to help Lorenzo de Medici achieve reputation as a prince. The book can be divided into four sections: the discussion about different types of principalities or states, the different types of armies and the proper conduct of a prince as military leader, the character and behavior of the prince, and Italy's political situation and solutions for it. The final chapter is a suggestion for the Medici family to supply the prince who will lead Italy out of humiliation. In the first chapter, entitled “Different Kinds of States, and the Different Ways to Get Them,” Machiavelli proceeds to map out a classification of states. In short, we have princely states and republics.
One last piece of advice is that fortresses depend on the situation. If the prince is hated by his people then the fortress will not protect him. 6. According to Machiavelli in Chapter 21, what must a prince do to be esteemed? He must be an outright ally and an outright enemy of a fight.
. . It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose. ” The Art of War, Chapter 1. A leader should also, according to Sun Tzu, know their enemy, but Machiavelli warns that a ruler must also be able to adapt to changes in plans.
It became important that one be well rounded in all intellectual areas as well as becoming knowledgeable about ones physical being through wrestling or fencing. Prior to the Renaissance one could only be educated in one field. They also practiced patriotism and humanistic learning on a daily basis. As the Renaissance continued to grow the “Age of Enlightenment” came around, leading to advancements in science and human reasoning. Intellectuals began to think that the new era of Renaissance was a time to liberate away from the superstitious times of the Middle Ages and to recognize the declining power of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Prince by Nicolo Machiavelli CHAPTER XV Concerning Things For Which Men, And Especially Princes, Are Praised Or Blamed IT REMAINS now to see what ought to be the rules of conduct for a prince towards subject and friends. And as I know that many have written on this point, I expect I shall be considered presumptuous in mentioning it again, especially as in discussing it I shall depart from the methods of other people. But, it being my intention to write a thing which shall be useful to him who apprehends it, it appears to me more appropriate to follow up the real truth of a matter than the imagination of it; for many have pictured republics and principalities which in fact have never been known or seen, because how one lives is so far distant from how one ought to live, that he who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation; for a man who wishes to act entirely up to his professions of virtue soon meets with what destroys him among so much that is evil. Hence it is necessary for a prince wishing to hold his own to know how to do wrong, and to make use of it or not according to necessity. Therefore, putting on one side imaginary things concerning a prince, and discussing those which are real, I say that all men when they are spoken of, and chiefly princes for being more highly placed, are remarkable for some of those qualities which bring them either blame or praise; and thus it is that one is reputed liberal, another miserly, using a Tuscan term (because an avaricious person in our language is still he who desires to possess by robbery, whilst we call one miserly who deprives himself too much of the use of his own); one is reputed generous, one rapacious; one cruel, one compassionate; one faithless, another faithful; one effeminate and cowardly, another bold and brave; one affable, another haughty; one
Comparing and Contrasting Two Pieces on Seventeenth Century Education in England The seventeenth century in England was a time of many radical events and new ideas. This included the shifting of political powers from monarchy to commonwealth and back to monarchy as well as new writings from such people as Margaret Cavendish, William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, and John Dryden. Included with these prominent names are John Milton and Bathsua Makin. The former may be better well known than the latter, but both had much to say on the topic of education. Of Education by John Milton and An Essay to Revive the Antient Education of Gentlewomen by Bathsua Makin both call for the reform of education.
Artists and Architects in Italy began looking at ancient artefacts, structures and scriptures for inspiration in seek of a new ‘truth’ and thus Humanism was born. This study of classical culture shifted man’s interest from religion to himself as the human body became the subject of interest as they believed that “man is the measure of all things” in stark contrast to the prior emphasis on the secular. Humanism, similar to its Greek predecessor, sought to find the order of the universe and also a new order of architectural language. Figure 1. Marcus Vitruvius ‘De Architectura’ (The Ten books on Architecture), 15BC Figure 1.
The Moral of the ‘The Prince”, by Niccolo Machiavelli In this intriguing essay, I will look to investigate the moral and the theme behind the book, ‘The Prince” originally written in 1513 by a former Italian Politician Niccolo Machiavelli, and then will attempt to try and show how the teachings of the ‘The Prince’, to our workplace to give it relevance in the present, even though it was written more than half a century year ago. Before going into this essay into detail, it is certainly important to examine who Niccolo Machiavelli was and the reasons as to why he wrote this book. To look at the reasons behind it, and the current political volatile situation in Italy at the time, threats from Spain and France for example. This would have had a direct Impact on Italy and mostly in a city like Florence, with a growing political scene that had suffered for most of it’s life. Plenty of political power and perhaps more importantly the struggle around Machiavelli with lots of different factions looking to take control of the principality.
Enveloped in this worldly reform was the start of a new ideology known as Renaissance Humanism. This refers to the “course of study followed by most young men of period” which included the quadrivium (arithmetic, music, geometry and astronomy) as well as classical philology, literature, history and moral philosophy. It was believed by Humanists at the time that if you read and applied these classical texts to your life then your overall quality of life would be improved. However, this period of learning and expansion was not purely beneficial; Brotton also explains how the darker side of renaissance came hand in hand with the benefits. “Today, there is a popular consensus that the term ‘Renaissance’ refers to a profound and enduring upheaval and transformation in culture, politics, art and society in Europe between the years 1400 and 1600” (Brotton 9).