To What Extent Was Austria Responsible for the Failure of Italian Revolutionaries in the Years of 1820-1849?

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To what extent was Austria responsible for the failure of Italian revolutionaries in the years of 1820-1849? It can be argued that Austria was largely responsible for Italian revolutions failing between the years of 1820-1849. They were a dominant force within Italy and would not allow themselves to be overthrown. However it is clear that other factors also had a significant impact over the failure of Italian revolutionaries, such as the fragmentation within Italy at the time, the misguidance of the revolts, the Pope was withdrawing his support of the revolts and their figurehead Mazzini being in exile. Revolutions between 1820-1821, 1831-1832 and 1948-1949 were all ultimately overthrown to some extent by Austrian force. Prince Clement Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, was a passionate opponent of Italian Nationalism. A main catalyst for this was the issue of Austrian pride. The Liberals, Radicals and Nationalists ideas within Italy (that the people has a right to some say in government, fairer distribution of wealth and greater independence) would completely undermine Austrian control over Italy. In the interest of Austria’s security, Metternich was keen to suppress liberal and nationalists movements, and was determined to maintain dominance so that Austria would not appear weak. By maintaining this ‘Italian jigsaw’, Italy remained divided and frail, and would never present a strong enough force to overcome powerful Austria. A fear of Metternich’s was that if the idea of revolution spread throughout Italy from states such as Lombardy and Venetia then the idea of Nationalism would spread, and the Austrian empire was extremely multi-racial meaning they did not support this idea. By keeping control, it offered reassurance that the Austrian empire would not disintegrate as Italy grew stronger and more united. The revolution in Naples 1820-21 is a clear example of
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