Conservatives have a pessimistic view of human nature, some would even agree with Hobbes view that the desire for “power after power” is the primary human urge. Two we are intellectually imperfect conservatives traditionally believe that the world is simply too complicated for human reason to fully grasp this leads them to trust in tradition as it is “Tried and tested” and it also explains there argument for letting society grow organically as conservatives would prefer to trust in nature then our own rationality this contrasts with both socialism and liberalism. Finally they believe we are psychologically imperfect conservatives believe we are security seeking, we fear isolation and instability and desire the security and belonging of “knowing are place” this is used as the argument for conservatives supporting social order as they accept Hobbes theory of a “Social contract” that individuals are willing to sacrifice liberty for the cause of social order. It is clear that traditionally conservatives strongly believed in human imperfection but too what extent the different strands of conservatism support this core principle differs. Strands that believe in the Human imperfection completely are traditional conservatives, authoritarian conservatives and paternalistic
Fundamentally, Rousseau and Marx refuted the theories of their predecessors; namely Hobbe’s insistence that man’s original state of nature was terrifying and disadvantageous to individuals and Locke’s championing of the protection of an individual’s right to private property. Rousseau precisely writes, “[A]ll the subsequent progress has been in appearance so many steps toward the perfection of the individual, and in fact toward the decay of the [human]species” (Rousseau 65). Both argued for what they considered to be best for the community of humanity, not the specific interests of a minority collective of wealthy individuals (Marx 168). Both find the establishment and exploitation of private property, as well as labor, to be the origins of social inequality (Marx 162-163) (Rousseau 65). In his Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, Rousseau states that the origin of inequality was the foundation of a political system that gave “new forces to the rich,” and thus, “destroyed natural liberty, [and] established forever the law of property and of inequality” (Rousseau 70).
Media often portrays Libertarians as anarchists based on their belief in limited government. This is inherently wrong, because believing in limited government is still believing in government. Libertarians don’t believe society could function without laws and regulations. Libertarians believe government should be limited to provide more control to the people. Their core desire is to help individuals regain control of their lives.
Radicals believe that capitalist profit from consumers, who are being exploited. In relation to the bill, radicals would say it’s the capitalist who are destroying the environment and disregarding human presence all in the name of profits. Radicals would approve of the bill as it would put an end to exploitation. But it does not completely comply with their views. A radical solution doe not exist in a capitalist society, but can only work if capitalism no longer existed.
Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.” He then goes on to say “Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil”. According to Paine if people acted morally, government would not be necessary, but since people are imperfect, government is necessary to protect life and liberty. In his documents paine propagandes that the only way for America is to rebel.
Conservatives believe that humans are imperfect and that society is too complicated for them to understand and make their own decisions. They believe that people fear isolation and instability and like to know their place. Margaret Thatcher stated 'there is no such thing as society, merely people and their families'. One nation conservatism which was led by Benjamin Disraeli was seen as pragmatic. He
He argued that they lack the power to act so they are weak. According to Hamilton (1788), they possess “merely judgment; and must ultimately depend upon the aid of the executive arm even for the efficacy of its judgments” (p.256). Hamilton (1788) pointed out that the court may sometimes be biased but, “the general liberty of the people can never be endangered from that quarter” (p. 256). In respect to the interpretation of the law, Hamilton (1788) believed that the constitution is “a fundamental law…” (p.257) and, “if there be an irreconcilable variance between the two, the constitution ought to be preferred to the statute, the intention of the people to the intention of their agents” (p.257). He is indirectly saying; court’s rulings give back power to the people.
To what extent do anarchists agree about the nature of the future stateless society? For Anarchists the state is oppressive and represents the few who seek to oppress the many. The state is also charged with taking away our freedom through subjecting us to its laws and controls that are artificial, offending the basic principle of individual sovereignty. Furthermore the state is seen as corrupting to those in power, those who come into government may do so with good motives, but inevitably lose their idealism and become exploiters themselves. It is for these reasons that all traditions within Anarchism wish to advance human kind through the removal of the state in society.
1. The government is not good, as Thoreau sees it. He believes that “government is best which governs least.” This means that he doesn’t think it is as powerful as it should be, and it is not taking advantage of what it actually is. “It has not the vitality and force of a single living man; for a single man can bend it to his will.” What Thoreau is saying is the government lets its people walk all over it and it is almost like the people are governing the government, which is a contradicting thought. Thoreau also says the government “is equally liable to be abused to be abused and perverted.” This is yet another example of how Thoreau thinks the government is turning away from what its original intent was.
This has worried human rights activists as such active surveillance will erode the freedom of ordinary people. Such forms of surveillance is more of a restriction to the people’s rights and choices to act freely, confining them to agree with the Government, never to question them. Such is an act of oppression that does not work in the ‘best interest’ of the people. By Locke’s take on the social contract, since the State has “ceased to uphold its end of the” social contract, the people own the right to revolt and overthrow the (State)” which “makes the contract void”3. The State, is therefore stripped of its right to interfere with the private lives of