This shows that Alexander was ready to liberate Russia because even though it was risky, it helped to start the liberalisation process because it enabled ex-serfs to work in factories which would help boost the economy, let the gentry to earn their own money and would help advances in industry which in turn help Russia to compete with the western world. However the aftermath of this manifesto was a lot more negative than first appears. Although Alexander helped to abolish Serfdom there were a lot of negatives
Due to the new economic policies made after the revolution in 1905, Russia’s economic developments went through a drastic change. There was an increase in the foreign trade, which was used to fuel their industrial production, and growth while their infrastructure expanded. Several successes were brought to the Russian empire with these changes. Russia’s industrial production doubled and they became the 4th largest producer of oil and steel. Despite the positive changes that occurred, the quality and maintenance of the new infrastructures were very poor, furthermore most weren’t even completed.
The party was led by Victor Chernov, who believed that the future of Russia not only lay with the peasantry, but the more newly developed industrial workers too - thus a main aim was to gain support of the peasantry and townspeople. The aim of the SR's was essentially to help the people a lot more by improving things such as their living conditions, and also they wanted to return all land back to peasants . Rather unsurprisingly, especially considering the peasants made up about 80% of the Russian population, the SR's were arguably the most popular party at the time in Russia. However despite those positive outlooks on the party there were a number of a weaknesses that caused divisions within
Economic factors such as the ever improving state of the economy was also improving the cracks in society, improving lives for most and allowing ideas to spread more easily. The deep rooted social divisions quite clearly showed that the nation was not united. Germany was still a hierarchy with those at the top being hugely better off compared to those at the bottom. The wealth and social divide was massive with the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. These divisions existed since before the unification but yet weren’t improved, in fact they were getting worse with the divides getting bigger and people feeling more abandoned and worse off.
The 1880s saw an industrial expansion in Russia. Coal and oil exports rapidly increased meaning more money was being brought into the country. The government however, used it for increasing military power such as making new weapons and employing more soldiers rather than helping the structure of Russia. To help the structure of Russia they could have spent it on building new roads and railways, and investing in new agricultural equipment which would help the economical transformation of Russia a lot more. Sergei Witte was minister of finance from 1892 to 1903 and wanted to modernise Russia.
Russia was also behind the other Great Powers. Although they were increasing in their economic growth, the other Powers in comparison were growing at a much faster rate. The Russo-Japanese War took away money which could have been put towards something to help boom the economy. If they wanted to keep in competition with the other Great Powers then spending all this money on a war wasn’t a good idea. This meant that the working and living conditions of the people couldn’t be helped as there was no money to send to the places that needed it.
This was achieved, between 1928 and 1935 the amount of grain procured more than doubled. This efficiently increased Russia’s wealth as they sold large quantities to other countries, providing funds for industrialisation. Additionally, industrialisation was hastened by 1939 as 19 million people left the countryside to the cities providing a workforce. This was Stalin’s purpose hence collectivisation success as the money and people were these resources he needed. However, in the early 1930 grain harvest dropped.
Why did the 1905 revolution fail? Revolution: A fundamental change in power or organisational structure which takes place over a short period of time. The 1905 revolution is Russia, was not largely successful. Historians attribute this to four main factors; Concessions, repressions, the weakness of those who were trying to rebel, and the skepticism and debate over whether there truly was a revolution in 1905. The absence of a real leader, any political overthrow and a change from autocracy to democracy is the key reasons i believe that there was not in fact a revolution, however a cluster of spontaneous uprisings, at unplanned instances for the most part.
He invited foreign experts from more industrialised countries, such as Britain, France and Germany to Russia to advise him on modernisation. He realised that he would have to have policies that would allow individual business people to start factories and encourage metalwork. His policies were successful, because industrial growth increased on average by 8% a year between 1890 and 1899, which was the highest growth rate of any of the world’s major economies. When Witte placed more emphasis on industrialisation, it meant that more jobs were created in towns and cities, this allowed Serfs to come from rural areas in the hope of a better way of life, which
This meant that essentially capitalist kulaks were holding back Stalin’s idea of a collective farm which is owned by the state. The elite peasant farmers had advanced equipment which allowed them to profit from their work, Stalin launched his policy of dekulakisation in order to be able to take not only the land which Kulaks owned, but the livestock and machinery that allowed them to sustain themselves, and distribute it to collective farms so that they could farm more efficiently. These larger more efficient collective farms would produce grain quicker and in turn increase exports for Russia. Kulaks had too much power and influence in the countryside, they were the most powerful farmers and would have been difficult to deal with as the towns and cities were being far more focused on than the countryside. The idea of the kulak also is a problem ideologically for the communist party, as it symbolises exactly the class division which they promised to eradicate, and create equality in the countryside.