They consider what action is morally "good" and "bad" or morally "better" or "worse" in this situation, disregarding their personal profits and happiness. The overthrow of the communist system is an incalculating and contingent result of combating the extreme manifestations and worst excesses of the system. 1. Protest in Defense of Identity There are three essential forms of opposing the totalitarian system: covert passive resistance, overt non-violent protest, and armed struggle. The first form of activity results, in a way, from a combination of utilitarian calculating and axiological considerations.
Self-determination was a criticism of European imperialism but also an attack on the seizure of power by small armed groups like the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks called the idea of collective security and a world peace keeping organization “a mechanism of world capitalism”. Wilson’s ideas were based on traditional U.S. values of personal and economic freedom (democracy and capitalism). Communism was hostile to capitalist economic development; Marx called it “exploitation”. This posed a threat to the greater freedom of world capitalism as an open market would require the dismantling of trade barriers and spheres of influence.
Anarchism on the other hand was powerful in countries like Spain, France, Russia, and Mexico in the early twentieth century. The main principle behind anarchism is the belief that political authority in all its forms, and especially in the form of the state is both evil and unnecessary. The literal meaning of anarchy is ‘without rule.’ The type of economy socialism believes in is where the people own and manage the resources of the society, whereas anarchism believes that people should govern themselves and therefore are free to group themselves to produce wealth. Both socialist and anarchists believed in equality for all individuals to attain general wellbeing of each individual, however the tackle of realizing the
He believes that it was the role of the government that would keep these instincts in line. If these instincts were not controlled it would lead to war. Hobbes views were shaped by his life experiences during the English Civil War. He believed people were evil and selfish. Hobbes idea that “people orbiting their ruler” leads me to the idea of socialism/communism (Sayre, 2012).
The writings by Marx and Engels which composed the main tenets in the Communist Manifesto influenced revolutions not by just mere agitation through writing; rather they fueled revolutionary groups by confronting the capitalist forces through the forces of the proletariats. They discovered the special role of the proletariats, who they believed were capable of overthrowing the capitalist class (“The Communist Manifesto,” n.p). The Communist Manifesto is centered on the idea of class struggle and continuing antagonisms in the society. This according to the Manifesto, class struggle revolves between the bourgeoisie and the proletarians – the oppressor and the oppressed; the few and many. Hence, the Manifesto predicts the probable ways of eliminating oppression by abolishing the basic factors that instigate oppression – example: private property – which shall eventually lead towards overthrowing the bourgeosie (“The Communist Manifesto,” n.p).
They note that the traditional Marxist perspective is too deterministic and try to implement an element of free will in their theory. Traditional Marxist’s view of crime has 3 key aspects: The Criminogenic capitalism, the state and law making and ideological functions of crime and law. As previously stated, criminogenic capitalism is the Marxist idea that crime is inevitable because of the nature of capitalism. They believe that because of capitalism as the unequal divide between classes, committing crime is sometimes the only way people can live. For example, a young woman who is living in poverty may have to resort to prostitution in order to survive.
The workers of the world had to be “liberated” from bourgeois exploitation. As the principle communist nation of the world, Russia had a duty to spread the revolution begun in 1919 to the rest of Europe. The view of many Marxist scholars was that the proletariat had been brainwashed by the rich, and thus were not capable of instigating a workers’ revolution themselves – therefore Communism had to be introduced by force. Stalin realised that the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe was a rare opportunity for Russia to act as this vanguard. Perhaps less importantly, though still a significant point in the domination of Eastern Europe, was the desire of Stalin to
Throughout history there have been bourgeois and proletarians, in ancient Rome patricians, knights, plebeians and slaves (57). Marx argues that “the immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all other proletarian parties: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat" (67). He also considers the changes that by wanting to abolish private property, the Communist are seen as destroying the "ground work of all personal freedom, activity, and independence" (63). However, he explains how a laborer, proletarian, doesn’t properly own any property creating capitalism, a property which works in favor for the exploitation of the worker. Marx
There would be surveillance and terroristic policing to control people’s lives. They would use propaganda and manipulate all mass media to gain support and they would abolish civil society. This type of state is fascist inspired and some examples are Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Italy. This type of state would be completely coercive with no individualism or freedom or rights. One theorist said about how the state is just armed bodies of men and coercion is the only option Another type of state which makes coercion an essential part is the collectivised state.
Mao Ze-Dong was a unique communist dictator because he took the Marxist ideas and twisted them in a way that he considered would fit Chinese society. Thus, Maoism was born. Mao also believed in destruction as a means to progress, and the following quote by the Chairman himself clearly reflects this: “Progress is born in chaos. And originality comes from destruction”. In addition to this, Mao sought to “empower” the peasants, and thus established what he called a democratic dictatorship; a ruse to fool the people into thinking they had a say in affairs.