This lack of organisation also lead to food shortages and issues with transport. A common occurrence within the army was troops trading their weapons- of which there was a shortage of- for food or other basic necessities. War weariness also created other issues such as inflation. At the start of 1914 Russia had achieved financial stability, yet from 1914-17 government spending rose from 4 million roubles to 30 million. In an attempt to raise capitol taxation was increased, coupled with heavy borrowing from other countries.
Besides all this such industrialization improved the overall military capability of Russia. Therefore during this period Russia’s economy was dramatically and successfully transformed. Russia's industrialization was further hindered by the financial state of both its government and its people. The government was highly in debt and forced
Russia during Communism (Lenin) Economy Social Conditions • In 1918, the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, had full control of Russia. • Russia was pulled out of World War I, but lost a great deal land of land to the Germans including 60 million people, 25% of its farmland, and 75% of its iron and coal deposits. • Civil War during this period between the Reds (Communists) and Whites (non-communists). • The Reds won, but the war severely impacted Russia’s economy making it worse than it was in the Tsar era. • Lenin then started the New Economic Policy which made Russia’s economy steadily rise and by 1926, Russia’s economy was back to the way it was • After the Civil war, crime increased throughout the country • 5 million people died due to a famine after a drought • Cannibalism became a common way to survive • The country had no order; people could do whatever they want Russia during Communism (Stalin) Economy Social Conditions • During this era, Russia’s economy
Furthermore the social climate fared no better with 80% of the population consisting of peasants, there was a huge divide between the rich and poor. Though by the end of Alexander II’s reign banks were developed which led to an increase in the Russian economy, the miles of railway had increased by 20% and the serfs had been emancipated. Alexander II was entitled to the title the ‘Tsar Liberator’ since in 1861 he passed the decree of the Emancipation of the serfs in which both serfs and state peasants, who were owned by the Tsar himself, were freed. The ‘Souls’ no longer were considered the nobility of Russia possessions and weren’t expected to live and die on the land. The peasants were no longer ruled by the nobility instead by the ‘Mir’ the local village council, the peasant’s own people.
How accurate is it to say growth of reformist groups in the years from 1881 was the main cause of 1905 revolution? Long term- social • 80% peasants- poverty- a lot of ppl against him as he was making them work like slaves- should have helped them because majority & produce the food • Peasants reacted to famine with violence= had enough- attacked gov officials & destroyed gov land holding records • Poor working & living conditions- why wasn’t the Tsar * Agricultural crisis: peasants had huge debts; not enough land for everyone; famine. * Rapid industrialisation: over populated cities; workers living in slums; wages low; hours long. Long term – political • Autocracy- gave Tsar all power but was mostly helping upper class • No elected national parliament= demand for political reform • Reformers had nothing in common apart hate for Tsar= desperation * ruled by a Tsar, who had complete control over the country. However, he was a weak ruler and failed to rule his people properly * he treated opposition with violence and the Okhrana (the secret police) * Political repression; compared with other countries democracies; Tsar was VERY WEAK and easily influenced.
Either we do this or they crush us.’’ Stalin wanted the USSR to modernise at such a fast rate that it would make up the 50-year gap in 10 years. The industry had to be developed to such an extent that the country, which had all along depended mostly on agriculture or farming, had to depend on industry more. Although Russia was recovering from war, its production from heavy industries was still low compared to other countries. Stalin felt that this needed to be improved if they were to survive any possible attack that might come from the capitalist West attempting to destroy Communist Russia. The USSR needed to invest in materials like coal, iron, steel and power to defend itself properly.
How successful were Witte's modernising policies for Russia? Throughout the 19th Century Russia had suffered many challenges and problems both economically and industrially. Despite the sheer size of Russia they were fast falling behind Western countries such as Great Britain and Germany in many aspects; Russia fell behind in areas such as, politics in which they were failing to advance due to their refusal to introduce a working parliament, economy as they had yet to introduce a less intimidating and more understandable backing system so to encourage trading with other countries and industrialisation which was done on a small scale and restricted by the lack of railways and roads. Famine was running high due to extensive taxes, agriculture was waning due to the rapid expansion of the population and the inability to distribute productive agricultural land and foreign investment was practically non existent. The country was in desperate needs of some reforms that could put her back on the map and help her regain her status as one of Europe's "Great Powers".
Firstly the lack of agricultural workers and horses to tend the fields as well as the takeover of the transport system by the military, hindered the food production of Russia. While Moscow was receiving 2,200 rail-carts of grain, however by 1916, only 300 carts were able to enter the city. This means that there was little food to go around, and when rumours of food cuts to already strained rations, turn to riots, in which the February revolution started. Secondly , the war crippled the Russian economy. Taking loans from Britain and France, as well as dropping the gold standard so as to print money (Robles), inflation was bound to rise.
The Mark was valued so low German people were noted for using it for wallpaper. As Hitler rose to power within Germany he used autarky to resolve some of Germany’s main economic struggles such as unemployment and inflation. Adolf Hitler was a strong believer in discouraging trade with other countries and becoming a self-sufficient nation. This is actually quite opposite of Communist Russia because under Stalin Russia was attempting to increase their trade contacts and have a nation where everyone’s needs were taken care of. Hitler was able to help Germany’s economy slowly ascend to its former glory, as did Russia with Lenin and Stalin.
The Tsar, the main opposition to these groups faced poor criticism. Industrialisation was a major cause of the 1905 revolution. Urbanisation began to increase by 55% between 1880 and 1905. Workers worked in poorly ventilated factories for long hours and little pay. They had no trade unions for protection.