Those who advocated unrestricted policies recognized that restraining the submarine, Germany’s one advantage, would render them useless. The other option seemed to be just as futile. This lose-lose situation is not unique to Imperial Germany. A corresponding situation would be the debate between Japanese officials over whether or not to attack the United States during World War II. One side believed that not attacking the U.S. would only lead Japan to fail and the other argued that hostile actions towards the U.S. would cause lead to the same.
The peace treaty did not satisfy France as it was not harsh enough in the eyes of France. After suffered badly from WWI with umpteen casualties, France was determined to cripple Germany completely as a form of revenge as well as an assurance against future German revival. Some provisions of the treaty did meet French demands, such as the return of Alsace-Lorraine from Germany; the German disarmament which set a maximum strength of 100000 soldiers together with the dissolution of the air force and the reduction of navy to 6 batttleships; and a whopping reparation of 132 billion gold marks to be paid over 42 years. These clauses would severely weaken Germany economically and militarily which certainly catered to French aim. However, French felt these punishments were not harsh enough to eliminate the chance of future German revival.
Britain and the colonist’s tensions stemmed, in part, from bad feelings. The colonists saw the war as an example of their equality with Britain; Britain did not. The colonists believed they had major combat role in the war in the new world, while Britain saw them as militia men, not an army. Britain further illustrated their belief when they refused to acknowledge any colonist above the rank of colonel.
Since Germany was going through a hard time, that effected everyone. Germany was suppose to pay for the war, but they couldn’t. Making Germany sign this treaty was basically putting Europe in a bad state. According to document 12, the triple Entente hated Germany and all they wanted to do was punish them; not realizing what it would do in the long run. As stated in document 9, Germany’s military forced were limited meanwhile, other countries were not.
The Defeat of the Treaty of Versailles It was not the power of the opposition forces, liberal or conservative, of the U.S. that led to the final defeat of the Treaty of Versailles, but rather the political ignorance, inability and inflexibility of the President, Woodrow Wilson. With the surrender of Germany after WW1, it presented many different ways to create peace. Wilson in 1918 offered his plans for peace in the "Fourteen Points", the most important of which he believed was Article X, the League of Nations. One year later, Wilson led the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles to reach an international pact that included the points. However, the U.S. was never to sign the treaty or join the League of Nations Woodrow Wilson's ideas for peace were well rooted in thought, but in politically applying his ideas, he made unchangeable mistakes.
Frederick William shared this view and was unwilling to potentially cause a war with such a powerful state. This caused the Frankfurt Parliament to fail because Prussia did not grasp the opportunity to unite and neither did the King, therefore Germany remained divided. Although he desired power, William IV was not willing to put himself and Prussia under control of the Frankfurt Parliament as he distrusted ‘the gentlemen of Frankfurt’. This meant that the Parliament had no real leader, and so lost support because people distrusted the parliament as an influential figure stated he would not be associated with them. This aided in causing the failure of the Parliament because with no real leader, no one could influence the masses or help to make decisions.
Although foreign policy was significant in creating discontent between the Crown and Parliament, there were also other factors to consider. For example, Charles implementing the forced loan and the Three Resolutions, after Buckingham’s death. Buckingham’s initial french policy of sending British troops to fight against the Huguenots who were Protestants brought unease among the MPs as they feared that Buckingham was supporting the Roman Catholic french Royals. So to gain popularity, Buckingham decided to help the Huguenots and led a naval expedition at La Rochelle in 1627. This was a disaster and Buckingham had to retreat his troops without even aiding the Huguenots, which made him become the most despised man in England as he was seen responsible for the military failures.
A speech by President Woodrow Wilson, resumed to Fourteen Points, was preached to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918, to encourage the Germans to negotiate for a peace settlement to end World War I and intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe; although the fourteen points were not all approved and carried out, they became the basis for a peace program and it was because of them that Germany and her allies agreed to an armistice in November 1918. In January 8, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson addressed Congress proposing a fourteen-point program for world peace, believing that the enactment of the former would form the basis for a just, lasting peace that would improve the conditions of countries, both home and overseas, after World War I. The address was intended to assure the United States that World War I was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. In his statement, Wilson directly pinpointed what he believed were the causes for the Great War by calling for the abolition of secret treaties, a reduction in armaments, an adjustment in colonial claims in the interests of both native peoples and colonists, and freedom of the seas. Wilson also made proposals that he hoped would ensure world peace in the years to come.
The politicians, who signed the peace treaty on behalf of Germany, were named and shamed as ‘stabbing Germany in the back’. This notion was emphasised by opposing political parties who were egger to take any opportunity to make these politicians look bad to the people of Germany. Germany was a militaristic state which and the republic was not going to succeed with so many opposing forces such as ex-soldiers who were willing to fight any rivals. The treaty of Versailles caused a profound sense of injustice and resentment amongst the German people therefore this translated into hatred of democracy. The treaty was not the only reason for the failure of the Weimar Republic, issues such as the period time and the great depression contributed to this also.
Peacemaking and the League of Nations 1) The French leader, Clemenceau, saw the oppportunity at the Treaty of Versailles to cripple Germany so it could not attack France again. Describe how the Treaty of Versailles weakened Germany. (4marks) It weakened Germany through the loss of territory, restricted armed forces and economics such as the loss of the Saar and the reparations Germany had to pay. 2) 'I do not suppose that in the history of the Assembly there was ever a more difficult moment for a speech and a discussion. The world is worried about the Abyssinian Crisis and there are strong feelings on both sides.