To What Extent Did Mussolini's Economic Policies Improve the Standard of Living of Ordinary Italians in the Years 1922-43?

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'To what extent did Mussolini's economic policies improve the standard of living of ordinary Italians in the years 1922-1943?' Prior to Mussolini's reign, there were a number of economic problems throughout Italy. The impact of the war meant there was 3 million Lira of debt, 2 million unemployed, and the exponential issue of inflation. There was still a North-South divide, and the South was infertile so there was a lack of crops, and riddled with Malaria. Bad working conditions in the country sparked numerous strikes and riots, and the sheer lack of exports meant there was an increase of imports, and therefore costs continued to rise. Mussolini saw that the economy was in dire need of vast improvement, and along with it the standard of living was nearly in a state of disrepair. Throughout the years 1922-1943 Mussolini formulated 4 key Battles to aid and expand his economy; Battle of the Grain (1925), Battle of the Lira (1926), Battle of the Births (1927), and the Battle of the Marshes (1928). From 1922 to 1925, Mussolini's regime pursued a laissez-faire economic policy under the liberal finance minister Alberto De Stefani. De Stefani reduced taxes, regulations, and trade restrictions and allowed businesses to compete with one another. But his opposition to protectionism and business subsidies alienated some industrial leaders, and De Stefani was eventually forced to resign. It wasn't until the assassination of Matteotti in 1925 that Mussolini was able to consolidate his dictatorship. From 1925 onwards Mussolini attempted to execute various economic plans, many of which failed to result in the desired outcome. The Battle of the Grain (1925) focused on striving towards Autarky, reducing the balance of trade deficit and imports of bread, boosting cereal production, and ultimately displaying Italy as a major force. Mussolini wanted to make Italy economically stronger
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