During Tsarist rule Russia was an autocratic state. This meant that the tsar was the ultimate source of power at the time. Similarly to the Tsar Lenin also had complete power but he had to go to more extreme measures to achieve this. One way he done this is through reducing the treat of opposition completely. One of the ways Lenin accomplished this was through the way he controlled the media.
According to Historian Malone, the Tsar “believed totally in the tsarist system and argued that a democracy and elections would result in political collapse.'' His reluctance to alter the system of authority and introduce representatives reinforces his lack of ability in knowing 'the business of ruling'. However, in response to pressure from the discontented Proletariat group, Nicholas II implemented an Imperial Council, Cabinet of Ministers, a Senate and the Okhrana. These parties however, were merely a tokenistic response, as Nicholas II still retained ultimate power. He ensured that he had the right to choose half the members of the council, declare
The main issue with the regiments of the Whites were that they were completely independent and separate to one another; all fighting for different aims. This can be easily juxtaposed with the Red’s aim – which was simple – to win the war and secure Bolshevik control, or lose control completely and be consigned to the rubbish bin of history themselves. The White forces were deeply divided and failed to work together and surround the Red’s armies, this was a great help for the Reds who were able to take the White armies out one by one. The White regiments were composed of Liberals, former-Tsarists, Nationalists, SR’s and other moderates, an extremely wide
How far do you agree that communists and Tsars ruled Russia in the same way? The February Revolution of 1917 that brought down the Tsarist regime and led to the ascension of the Provisional Government, had much potential to bring about significant change from the autocratic regime of the Tsars. However, the totalitarian government of the communists seized power in the October Revolution and continued to maintain many aspects of Tsarist rule including the top-down approach to rule, their ideology in policy making and their repressive methods. Although the communists and Tsars appeared to rule differently in their theory, in practice their methods were to a very large extent the same. The top-down approach the rulers of Russia had in the period 1855-1964 were superficially different as the communists claimed to represent the people by giving power to the proletariat where as the Tsars were heavily elitist in their ideology.
With so many different methods, it was easier for the Tsar to repress small scale revolutions and uprisings, than if they all got together. Peaceful propaganda got them nowhere and the lack of clear of capable leadership meant that yet again the Tsar could dodge another bullet. With such strong deep roots embedded into society, it comes to no surprise as to the survival of the Tsarist rule for so long. People were born believing in the righteousness of the Tsar, and those who rebelled
While Stalin rejecting the NEP was significant, considerable factors led him to succeed in the power struggle such as: the disappearance of Lenin Will, being underestimated by fellow party member and playing them against each other and using his power as General Secretary to deceive and trick his way in to power. To some extent the key reason for him succeeding in the power struggle was due to the fact he was the General Secretary. This gave him control over the appointment of responsibility; he could put his supporters in key positions. He also had control over the party organisation; this meant he could influence the selection of delegate who were sent to the annual party congress where major issues where decided. He could pack the congress with his supporters.
By controlling the membership within the party congress Stalin also had the power to expel pro-Trotsky supporters, and therefore establish a system which gained him huge amounts of support to outvote the other contenders. By having such a system in his favour Stalin was able to manipulate those in the government to see forth with his ideas, suggestions and plans. Trotsky, one of Stalin's main rivals encompassed authority as Head of the Army and consequently had limited power within the party. Stalin's control of appointments and the membership made him a useful ally as other contenders wanted him on their side as he could deliver votes in the
This was made possible by him controlling the majority of the dumas funding meaning he could deny a new law by limiting their financial strength. Not only did he offer too little reform but in the case of the working class, he offered none at all. By doing this he sent a message of deception to his people which therefore lowered the support towards him. Another way in which he personally created problems for himself and Russia was his choice to leave Petrograd and appoint himself as commander in chief of the army. He did this to show his strength and bravado yet by doing this he allowed himself to become personally responsible for any and all military
How far does Stalin’s position as General Secretary explain his success in defeating his rivals in the years 1924-29? In 1923, Stalin was the least likely candidate to succeed out of Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin and of course Lenin as leader of the party, this was because although he was important in the administrative function during the civil war, he was not glamorous nor intellectual, unlike Trotsky and Bukharin. Stalin was seen by many as the ‘safe candidate’, and a centrist, who therefore could present himself as a sensible and practical politician. Stalin had been appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1922, entitling him to being responsible for appointing people to key positions within the party, and for any promotions. As he had the powers to do so, he also had the power to sack party members.
Others indicate that their rise to power and the overthrow of the Provisional Government was more influenced by the faults and failures of the Provisional Government. The Provisional Government was never in full control of Russia, their power was shared with the Soviets, thus when the Bolsheviks and the Soviets banded together; it shoved the Provisional Government on a rocky road downwards, while the Bolsheviks rose and seized power from them. The Soviets were a great influence in the Bolsheviks surge to power; their leader, Leon Trotsky, and the Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, began working together in 1917 after Lenin was appointed head of the Bolshevik party and together they drew the support away from Kerensky and the Mensheviks, and introduced his ideas of reform to the lower and middle classes. The class system worked to the Bolsheviks advantage because all of the lower classes needed help and Lenin's ideas for revolution all coincided with the peoples wants and needs, which in turn gained Lenin and the Bolsheviks the support of the lower classes. Trotsky worked to obtain the support by going to events and giving speeches, such as the one he gave on the 22nd of October in 1917, in which he