Death Cap Mushroom Transcription and Translation: mRNA is necessary to direct synthesis (transcription) of the polypeptides. In other words to copy the DNA. The information on DNA is coded into mRNA here. Information is rewritten and translated into a protein. The death cap mushroom toxicity can cause inhibition of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme necessary for synthesis of mRNA.
Transgenesis and Cloning Transgenesis is the process of inserting a gene from one source into a living organism that would not normally contain the inserted gene. The gene can come from the same species (called Cisgenesis) or from a different species entirely. To facilitate the transfer of genes from one organism to another, often a Transgenic Organism with Recombinant DNA is created: -The first step in creating an organism capable of carrying out the transformation process is to isolate the required gene. This is done so using Restriction Enzymes, which target a specific gene sequence. The gene is often cut with staggered ends, called “Sticky Ends” which only allow specific and complementary gene sequences bond by base pairing.
1994). Studies with inhibitors suggest the presence of both serine and histidine in the active site (Miller et al. 1974). Furthermore, each protein is coded by mRNA which can be quantitatively analyzed by coding it into cDNA and running it through a two-dimensional gel. Timmins and Reynolds (1992) found that the allelochemical azadirachtin directly or indirectly inhibits the production of trypsin by the enzyme-secreting cells of the midgut wall.
Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly.
Describe each process (including differences between bacteria and eukaryotes) and explain the significance of the differences between replication and transcription When first going through DNA replication, the two strands of double helix unwind. Each strand is an outline for the formation of a new, complementary strand. DNA helicase enzymes hang along the DNA molecule, opening the double helix as they move. Once the strands are separated, helix-destabilizing proteins bind to single DNA strands, preventing re-formation of the double helix until the strands are copied. Enzymes called topoisomerases produce breaks in the DNA molecules and then reconnect the strands, relieving strain and effectively preventing tangling and knotting during replication.
During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as needed. This process is similar in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One notable difference, however, is that prokaryotic RNA polymerase associates with mRNA-processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed quickly after the start of transcription. The short-lived, unprocessed or partially processed, product is termed pre-mRNA; once completely processed, it is termed mature mRNA.  Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processingMain article: Post-transcriptional modification Processing of mRNA differs greatly among eukaryotes, bacteria, and archea.
Plasmid DNA has been recognized as the most powerful tool in molecular cloning because of their simplicity and practicality in propagating foreign genes. In research, plasmid DNA is used as a vector allowing the study and generation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). The bacterial strain used as host in our experiment was GMO endA negative E coli strain. The wild type strain usually contains endA gene, which is responsible for production of endonucleasa I. This protein is part of bacterial antiviral defense mechanism and it can destroy double-stranded DNA.
Over evolutionary time, they and their DNA became integrated into the cell to form a new type of life called eukaryotes. Endosymbiosis suggests that certain organelles were once free living organisms that were taken into larger cells and the arrangement was beneficial to both organisms. First off, mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar in size and morphology to bacterial prokaryotic cells, though the mitochondria of some organisms are known to be morphologically variable. Also, mitochondria and chloroplasts divide by binary fission, just as bacteria do, and not by mitosis as eukaryotes do. Additionally, the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts are different from that of the eukaryotic cell in which they are found.
Lab Report #1 – Restriction Map of the pTP1 Plasmid Introduction: The purpose of the lab is to apply methods for isolating and analyzing DNA with the use of restriction enzymes in preparation for analysis of the pTP1 plasmid by agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. They are crucial tools required for modern recombinant DNA technology. The way these enzymes work is by “scanning” a DNA molecule (usually 4-6 nucleotides) for a specific recognition sequence and then stops to cut the strands at the specific sequence. The restriction enzyme will continue cutting the DNA strand which is broken into fragments that are measured in base pairs (1000 pairs).
The possibility of inserting a gene into an organism in order to change the organism’s trait is an interesting discovery. It opens up pathway to future research as scientists can now pinpoint the good genes and isolate the bad genes. Besides in biotechnology, genetic transformation has been seen in the medical field where gene therapy was utilised to insert healthy copies of the defective genes into a patient’s cells. In addition, this transformation has been more commercialised in recent years as researchers have managed to use this transformation to make genetically modified crops which is a product of extensive gene coding for favourable growing traits. Introduction In this experiment, we utilised a strain of E.Coli bacteria.