To Ruin Our Gpas

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INTRODUCTION One of the most novel features of biotechnology in its brief history is the process of demonstrating the function certain genes have in an organism. This lab serves as an exercise of showing the effects such a removal of certain genes will have on an organsim. MSN2/MSN4 are transcriptional activators related to stress condition, which result in translocations from the cytoplasm to the nucleus as well as binds DNA at stress response elements in Saccaromyces cerevisia, or simply a strain of yeast (1). To determine the effects the removal of these genes has on yeast becomes the goal of this experiment, whereby a demonstrating of complete microarray analysis will be acheived. The primary step to determine the genetic effect removing these genes, known as the knock out (KO), have is to extract RNA from the prokaryote, more specifically its messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribonucleic acid, RNA, is the single stranded equivalent of DNA and is just as requisite for prokaryotic and eukaryotic existence. Messenger RNA, mRNA, transcribes the genetic material of DNA and brings it to the ribosomes throughout the cell to produce specific proteins, known as translation. For biotechnologists, it is critical to obtain mRNA in order to understand what material is being translated. Unfortunately, since there is no specific process to distinguish mRNA specifically between other types of RNA, such as transfer RNA, a general extraction of RNA becomes necessary. Since mRNA only comprises 1-3% of the total RNA concentration in a cell, it becomes critical to optimize the amount of RNA extraction. RNA extraction is the process by which cells have their cell membranes digested and then lysed. A spin column, which is a polypropylene membrane placed in a microcentrifuge tube usually containing a silica-based matrix can then by used to purify the RNA from the cell solution of

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