The difference between the two fibers can be distinguished by metabolism, contractile velocity, neuromuscular differences, glycogen stores, capillary density of the muscle, and the actual response to hypertrophy. Muscle hypertrophy refers to muscular enlargement coming from training, which is a result of the increase in the cross-sectional area of the existing fibers. The increase in dimension is due to an increase in the size of individual muscle fibers. Progressive tension
The purpose of this phase is to generate a training base or foundation from which to build upon. The basic strength phase involves moderate volume and high intensity. The number of repetitions decreases from the hypertrophy phase, but the percentage of 1-RM increases during this phase. The power phase involves low volume and high to very high intensity. The purpose of this phase is to recruit the fast twitch muscle fibers.
Introduction: The purpose of this lab was to determine the effects of increasing load on muscle recruitment, compare muscle recruitment between concentric and eccentric muscle movement and the effect of muscle fatigue on muscle recruitment during submaximal exercise. Hypothesis: The higher the weight increased the greater the motor unit recruitment would be. The motor unit recruitment would be greatest during the concentric phase rather than the eccentric phase. The more fatigued the muscle becomes the motor unit recruitment would be significantly less. Methods: Two surface electrodes were placed parallel on the belly of the bicep and one electrode on the bony process of the elbow on a Subject.
In this case friction will be neglected, and Data Studio will calibrate the length of the ramp. As an object moves down an incline, its’ speed increases with respect to time. This information can be used to determine the acceleration of objects down frictionless surfaces, and may help in future applications. As an object accelerates down a ‘frictionless ramp’, acceleration is increasing in the positive x direction, as seen in Diagram 1. The larger the angle of incline, the faster the acceleration will occur.
Student designed practical investigation Title: Atwood’s Machine (Newtons 2nd law of motion). Partner: Qurban Aim: To explore how two different masses act with each other on a pulley and therefore calculate acceleration a (theoretical and experimental) and the Tension T. Hypothesis: When both masses are the same, there should be no acceleration. The larger the ratio between one mass and the other, the higher the acceleration should be. Materials: Pulley, string, mass 1 + 2, ruler, stopwatch, scissors Apparatus: Theory: Since we are trying to find a, the equations we need are: For experimental a: Transposed to: Theoretical a: For tension: where x = displacement u = initial velocity t = time taken = mass 1 = mass 2 Let Method: 1. Set up the apparatus in the diagram above.
The spring represents the elastic components of the muscle and obeys Hook’s law : F=k*x but in terms of stress the equation turns into : σ=Ε*ε where σ: applied stress, E:Young's Modulus of the material ε: strain. The dashpot represents the viscous components of the muscle and is expressed in differential form by Newton’s law for straight,parallel and uniform flow: σ=η* where η: viscosity and :change of rate of strain (velocity). The important equations that are used in this model are: F=F1+F0 where F0=k0*u and F1=η1*u1=k1*u1’ u=u1+u1’ After long calculations we finally take the differential equation of motion for a standard linear solid: The equation contains F, df/dt ,u ,du/dt functions as well as k0,k1,η constants and is impossible to solve as they are all unknown. For that reason we will use the experimental data from Bobsbooms given paper that will help understand how our functions are supposed to behave during the experiment and thus be able to extract some data and some important initial and boundary conditions, necessary for our model to work. From the Bobsbooms paper ‘Passive transverse mechanical properties of skeletal muscle in compression’ we are supposed to take the ramp and hold data (u versus t graph) and fit it in our model,expecting that our F versus t
Usually the experimenter adjusts the direction of the three forces, makes measurements of the amount of force in each direction, and determines the vector sum of three forces. Forces perpendicular to the plane of the force board are typically ignored in the analysis. In order to complete this lab we used a force table, accessories, level,standard weights. And weight hangers. In order to complete the first lab we had to level the table and connect the rings to the pulleys.
Introduction Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It uses the force of gravity to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Weight training differs from bodybuilding, Olympic weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, which are sports rather than forms of exercise. Weight training, however, is often part of the athlete's training regimen.
It is controlled by two muscles, the biceps on the front of the upper arm, and the triceps on the back of the upper arm. The biceps and the triceps are antagonistic muscles. This is when the biceps muscle contracts, the forearm moves up and when the triceps muscle contracts, the forearm moves down. Synergist: The synergist in a movement is the muscle’s that stabilises a joint around which movement is occurring, which in turn helps the agonist function effectively. Synergist muscles also help to create the movement.
LABORATORY REPORT Activity 2: Twitch Contractions and Summation PREDICTIONS Effect of Muscle Fiber Length on Contraction 1. As muscle fiber length increases: Contraction Force Increases. Effect of Stimulation Frequency on Contraction 2. As the frequency of stimulation increases, the force of contraction: Increases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Measurement of Threshold Stimulus 1.