By following the matching principle all of the costs associated with a particular product, not just its wholesale price, is expensed when the item is sold. Requirement 2 - A Generally, the lower of cost or market method is used to value inventory in order to “avoid reporting inventory at an amount greater than the benefits it can provide” (Spiceland, Sepe, & Nelson, 2013, p. 476). According to Spiceland, Sepe, and Nelson (2013) the “change in replacement cost usually is a good indicator of the direction of change in selling price” (p. 477). When the change in replacement cost is negative the LCM method allows companies to apply the conservatism principle. The conservatism principle involves “recognizing expenses and liabilities as soon as possible when there is uncertainty about the outcome, but to only recognize revenues and assets when they are assured of being received” (The conservatism principle).
“For instance, the fall in the wage lowers people’s income and thereby reduces demand. That reduction may feed back to firms and reduce the demand for their goods, which might reduce the firms’ demand for workers” (Colander, The Limitation of Supply/Demand Analysis, 2010). “If these effects do occur, and are important enough to affect the result, they have to be added for the analysis to be complete. A complete analysis always includes the relevant feedback effects” (Colander, The Limitation of Supply/Demand Analysis,
Solvency ratios this is one of many ratios used to measure a company’s ability to meet long-term obligations. The solvency ratio measures the size of a company’s after-tax income, excluding non-cash depreciation expenses, as compared to the company’s total debt obligations. It provides a measurement of how likely a company will be to continue meeting its debt obligations. Users who may be interested in each type of ratio? Liquidity ratios are used by suppliers and other trade creditors.
The higher the ratio the more assurance exists that the retirement of current liabilities can be made. The current ratio measures the margin of safety available to cover any possible shrinkage in the value of current assets. Normally a ratio of 2 to 1 (2.0) or better is considered good. Short-term creditors prefer a high current ratio since it reduces their risk. Shareholders may prefer a lower current ratio so that more of the firm's assets are working to grow the business.
2) The sales budget calculates how much the company will spend to produce the required number of units. The president should do further consideration in terms of capital and labor costs. Does company have an adequate capital to produce the required number of units? And if the answer is no, they should look for other alternatives such as borrowing and others. 3) The sales budget is to estimate the profitability.
As the time horizon increases, variable costs rely less on existing factors and restrictions and therefore will begin behaving differently which will in turn affect the cost of production (Wright, 2007). The second way a firm that’s into profit maximization can decide its greatest level of output is by way of the marginal revenue -- marginal cost method. This is done by subtracting the marginal cost from the marginal revenue that a product generates. Using marginal cost and marginal revenue as the bases, profit maximization will be obtained at the point when marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. If the marginal revenue is greater than marginal cost this would be when a profit maximizing firm would need to increase production until marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost.
In fiscal year 2008, the return on invested capital of continuing operations was 9.5% compared to fiscal year 2007’s 13.9%. The decrease reflects the decrease in operating profit that also impacts the rationalization charges. If the rationalization charges are excluded the return on invested capital for continuing operations would have been 11.4% (Phillips, Libby, Libby, 2011). The cash flow statement shows the movement of cash within a company. The cash flow statement is split into three categories: operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities.
The total assets of Coke have risen over the years but the percent of current assets has reduced. The reduction in productive assets is a positive indication that fewer assets are required to generate increased revenues. The assets that have increased are related to other long term assets. These long term assets are possibly from acquisitions for intangible assets. There is a noticeable reduction in the receivables line and increase in cash.
If the gross profit falls from one year to the next or is thought to be too low the firm may need to decrease the costs of its purchases or may try to increase the sales without increasing the cost of the goods sold. The same thing applies to the net profit margin if it is too low or falls year on year then the business may need to look for cheaper premises or cut staffing costs. Return on Capital Employed will be used to see if an investment is worth the capital outlay, if the return from the capital outlay is higher than the interest offered by banks for money invested then the outlay is justified. you then have to talk about Liquidity,The Debtors’ and creditors’ and then an overview of it all