According to Pinder (2012), the definition of a standard solution is any solution which has a precisely known concentration. It is very important for the concentration to be as accurate as possible. If incorrect, it can cause a number of problems, and in some cases these problems can be severe. For instance, whilst students are conducting an experiment in school and they are provided a 2mol which is in fact a 3mol, the results of the experiment can be wrong, it could cause a bad reaction with the solution they are mixing it with and if the acid reaches the students skin, it would be very irritant. In even worse cases, in industry, if the wrong amount of acid is used in the production of medicine and is then sold to customers from local pharmacies, it could severely distress the consumer and present them with potentially life threatening side effects. In turn, this would cause legal action to be taken against the manufacturer and therefore could possibly be shut down. However, for this problematic event to be prevented, manufacturers use special more expensive equipment with higher precision. To measure the standard solutions they use a burette with precision of 0.05cm3, this in turn lowers the percentage errors calculated after the experiment. To increase the accuracy and precision of measurements at the time of neutralisation, much more advanced computerised equipment are used. These pieces of equipment help to keep the tolerance of each solution level at 0.005%. However, for the experiment that I am conducting, expensive equipment will not be used but equipment that will be provided from the school laboratory. I will create my dilutions from the standard solutions and test them using titrations. From the titration volume, I will calculate the actual concentrate. (Pinder, 2012)
I am going to carry out an experiment that involves the manufacture of standard solutions. The mol of hydrochloric acid in each will be 2.0, 1.5, 1, 0.5 and 0.25....