Titration Cellular Essay

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Titration of phosphate buffers with sodium hydroxide Introduction The aim(s) of this practical is to determine the effect of buffer strength on changes in pH when large or small amount of acid/base are added to the solution and to determine the buffer capacity and endpoint of each tested buffer solutions. The technical aims of this experiment are to understand and be able to correctly use the equipment provided; such as, UB-10 pH meter and DENVER instrument. Buffer is solutions which consist of either a weak base or a weak acid and one of their salts containing the conjugate base anions in sufficient concentration to maintain a relatively constant pH when either a base or acid is added. It can resist changes in pH due to the presence of equilibrium between acid and its conjugate base. Titration is an operation of a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis, which determines the unknown concentration of a substance in a solution by adding to a standard reagent of known concentration, this is also known as volumetric analysis. In this case C1V1= C2V2 equation was used. pH is defined by the following equation; pH= -log10H+. pH is measured by the amount of H+ ions in the solution in comparison to OH- ions; therefore, a solution with the higher pH will contain higher concentration of OH-. A solution with a pH of 7 would be neutral, while an acidic solution would have a pH of lower than 7. Whereas a solution with a pH higher than 7 would be basic. Brønsted–Lowry acid-base theory was introduced in 1923 by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry (R. H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood and F.G. Herring, 2002). Brønsted–Lowry acid is a proton (H+) donor and, when the acid gives up a proton, a substance that can accept a proton, a base is formed from the acid. This base is the conjugate base of the acid. The following is the combination of

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