h) A way to make hard water softer is to put an sodium nitrate and create a precipitate to mellow out the reaction. Another way of making it softer is by removing the calcium ions one way of doing that is by boiling the solution to take out some of the ions. Conclusion: Overall, we determined that sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the anion that can be used to precipitate the most metal cations. Also, we learned that the anion sodium chloride, NaCl, could be used to remove silver ions from solutions. The stuff that I found interesting was that how many colours you can get when you mix the cations and anions
The reaction that occurred with this step was displacement and metathesis in the form of gas formation. The balanced equation of this step looks as follows: CuSO4aq+Zns→Cus+ZnSO4(aq) Once this step was finished, the remaining copper was retrieved. First, to recover the copper HCl was added to remove all the zinc. When this happened, a yellow tint was observed in the liquid, as well as bubbling as the zinc was broken down. Once the copper dried out, it was weighed and came to a total of 240 mg.
We resulted that lead, silver, and copper are the strongest oxidizing agents, and that magnesium and zinc are the weak oxidizing agents. The strong oxidizing agent oxidized the weak oxidizing agent and in turn the strong oxidizing agent got reduced while oxidizing the weak agent. When a reaction occurred, the solid metal reduced the ion, and in turn made it the more reactive metal. In part two we used a solvent extraction technique to derive an activity series for the halogens. With the use of this technique we placed chlorine, bromine, and iodine into solutions containing chloride, bromide, and iodide.
This reaction can be summed up using the following formula: 5Fe2++8H++MnO4- →5Fe3++Mn2++4H2O After standardization, the potassium permanganate solution is then titrated with 3 different magnesium oxalate solutions. To find the concentration of the C2O42- the balanced net ionic redox reaction formula is used: 5C2O42-+16H++2MnO4- →10CO2+2Mn2++8H2O It is important to note the addition of sulfuric acid (9M H2SO4) in performing this experiment because of the following reasons: 1) Sulfuric acid keeps the iron (II) from air oxidizing into iron (III) 2) Sulfuric acid keeps the iron (II) from hydrolyzing into Fe(OH)2 3) Sulfuric
White precipitate shows the presence of chloride (Cl-). Chloride anion equation: HCl(aq) + AgNO3 (aq) → HNO3 (aq) + AgCl(s). The nitrate anion test involves cooling a mixture containing 1 mL of test solution and 3mL 18M H2SO4. 2mL is poured down the inner test tube side and the presence of a brown ring shows nitrate (NO3-) to be present. The carbonate anion test mixes 1 mL of test solution and drops of 6M HCl.
For this particular exercise, you should be familiar with the following: • Sublimation: Many chemicals will sublime (phase change from solid state to gas state) provided the right conditions. Iodine, for example, sublimes at room temperature. A bottle of iodine will thus always have crystals forming around inside the bottle around the cap where sublimed iodine is being deposited (phase change from gas state back to solid state). Provided the proper equipment, chemicals that are being sublimed can be recovered. Decant(ing): Decanting is a way of separating a solid from a liquid.
One form of extractive metallurgy, called hydrometallurgy, uses aqueous solution chemistry for the recovery of metals from salts minerals or ores. The first step of hydrometallurgy, called extraction, is the process of removing metal from the ore. This is done by dissolving the metal in a suitable solvent, recovering the metal from the solution, and discarding the waste materials. The first step of extraction is leaching, in which the metal is dissolved in water or acid. Then the leach solution is purified by separating the waste from the desired materials.
We added anhydrous Sodium Sulfate as a drying agent. To complete, we distilled the cyclohexene and collected the product. Knowing this data, we determined the yield % which is 58.5%. This experiment features the dehydration of cyclohexanol and produce cyclohexene. The acid catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol with distillative removal of the resulting cyclohexene from the reaction mixture
I believe we did our procedures accurately. The precipitate was Zinc hydroxide which is amphoteric in nature. Meaning it can react both with acid and base to form salt. We got a white precipitate of zinc hydroxide and it reacted to make salt with both the base sodium hydroxide and the acetic acid. Our result would have been clearer to observe if we centrifuged it long enough because we might have lost some of the precipitate while washing it since it was not centrifuged long enough.
CHE 111 Laboratory 3 Hydrates Introduction Hydrates Water molecules combine with the molecules of certain substances, forming loose chemical combinations called hydrates. An example of a hydrate is MgSO4•7H2O. This formula means 7 water molecules are loosely attached to a magnesium sulfate molecule. Other examples of hydrates are Na2SO4•10H2O and Ba(OH)2•8H2O. When the hydrate is heated, it easily loses water molecules attached and becomes an anhydrous salt.